Glossary

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Number

#DIV/0!
An error returned by a formula indicating that a number was attempted to be divided by zero.

#N/A
An error returned by a formula indicating that a value is not available, or a function argument is missing.

#NAME
An error returned by a formula indicating unrecognized text used in a formula, such as a name that has not been defined.

#NUM
An error returned by a formula indicating that numbers are incorrect, such as a function that has a text argument instead of a number.

#REF
An error returned by a formula indicating that a cell reference is incorrect, such as when a cell is deleted that the formula refers to.

#VALUE
An error returned by a formula indicating that an operand, value, or argument in a formula is incorrect or illogical, such as if =5/A1 is attempted but cell A1 contains text.

10BASE-T
A type of network interface card to connect computers on an ethernet LAN, typically plugged into an RJ-45 slot on a network adapter card and Ethernet hub, transferring data at 10 megabits per second.

100BASE-T
Same as 10BASE-T, but transferring data 10 times faster, at 100 megabits per second.

16-bit
The chip architecture designed to run with DOS and earlier Windows 3.x programs. Windows XP and later operating systems can run both 16-bit and 32-bit applications.

32-bit
The more advanced chip architecture used in Windows 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP, and later operating systems.

3-D reference
In a worksheet function, a reference to a range in more than one worksheet that creates a dimension of depth, example, =SUM(Sheet1:Sheet4!A1).

8-bit color
An older screen color setting that provided 256 different colors, replaced by more recent 16-bit and 24-bit colors.

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A

Absolute reference
In an Excel formula, a cell reference that does not change when the formula is copied to a new location because the row and column components are preceded by a dollar sign $.

Access
The database program that is part of Microsoft Office.

ACL (Access Control List)
A feature of NTFS files and folders that stores information about who can, and cannot, access the item.

ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
A standard for saving power by automatically turning off computer hardware when not in use.

Active cell
Also called the Selected cell or Current cell, it is the cell with the dark selection border to indicate that it would be the cell acted upon, such as with the entry of a formula, text, or value.

Active window
The window currently capable of accepting keyboard input, which would appear “on top” of other underlapping windows. Clicking anywhere on a window, or clicking its taskbar button, makes that window active.

ActiveX control
An OLE Object with programmable flexibility for functionality in several interfaces such as spreadsheets and userforms.

Adapter
A network interface card and the driver needed to make that card work, installed inside a computer.

Add-ins
Supplemental programs that extend a program’s capabilities.

Address
The location of a specific cell or range expressed by the coordinates of column and row; for example, A1. Also information for location such as email address or web site (URL) address.

Address Book
A collection of names, e-mail addresses, and distribution lists used to manage contact information such as in Microsoft Outlook.

Adjustment handle
A small yellow diamond you can use to alter the appearance of the shape without changing its size.

Administrator
The person who controls a workgroup, LAN, or email service such as Microsoft Outlook or Exchange Server.

Administrator account
Type of user account that enables the user to create, edit, and delete all user accounts; install software; and use the management tools. Administrator accounts are in the Administrators group.

Advanced filter
A database feature that enables you to specify complex criteria and to copy filtered records to another location.

AGP (Advanced Graphics Port)
An advanced version of PCI for video cards, enabling faster screen updates.

Alias
An alternate name used for identification, such as email addresses that gets forwarded to a primary recipient.

Alignment
The manner in which a cell’s contents are arranged within that cell, such as vertical or horizontal placement that is centered, indented, or flush right or left.

AND search criteria
Two or more search criteria of which all conditions must be met to select a record.

Anonymous FTP
A type of File Transfer Protocol used on the Internet that enables anyone to log on anonymously and download files.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute

Antivirus software
Program that detects viruses and worms and may also delete them from your system.

API (Applications Programming Interface)
Programming language used by programs running under Windows.

APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)
Feature of Windows that automatically assigns IP addresses in the format 169.254.xxx.xxx to computers on a TCP/IP-based LAN.

APM (Advanced Power Management)
A standard for saving power by automatically turning off computer hardware when it is not in use.

Append
To add records from one table to the bottom of another table.

Append query
A query that adds a group of records from one or more tables to the end of one or more tables.

Applet
A small application program, frequently downloaded as part of a Web page.

Application
A program designed for a specific job, using software such as word processing, database, and spreadsheet programs.

Archive
A file containing Outlook items that are older than a specific age. When Outlook archives items, it moves those items from current folders to an archive folder.

Archiving
Moving old or expired items out of your Inbox and other message folders to an alternate location for storage.

Area Chart
A line chart in which each area is given a solid color or pattern for volume, to emphasize the relationship between the pieces of charted information.

Argument
In a worksheet function, a piece of information (value, cell range, etc) that is required to complete the calculation. In VBA, it is a piece of information that is passed to a procedure or function.

Argument ScreenTip
The yellow ScreenTip that appears to prompt you for each argument as you enter a function. Clicking the function name in the ScreenTip opens a Help window describing the function.

Array
A variable that can contain a number of values that have the same data type. VBA supports fixed-sized arrays and dynamic arrays.

Array formula
A special kind of formula in Excel where a group of cells or values are treated as a single unit, which is necessary to evaluate in that regard in order to perform some kinds of complex calculations. Array formulas are committed to a cell by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

Array subscript
In VBA, the number declaring the number of items in an array or the number that identifies a particular item in the array, sometimes just referred to as subscript.

Artificial intelligence
The simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction. Particular applications include expert systems, speech recognition, and machine vision.

Ascending order
A sort in which items are arranged from smallest to largest (1, 2, 3) or from first to last (A to Z).

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A code that represents letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and certain other characters by numeric values. Standard ASCII code provides for 128 characters; extended ASCII code provides for 256 characters.

ASCII file
A text file that contains data but no formatting or graphics, often delimited by tabs or commas, with extension .asc.

ASF or ASX (Advanced Streaming Format)
A file extension for Advanced Streaming Format files, a streaming audio or video file format used by Windows Media Player.

ASP (Active Server Page)
A page stored on a server that generates different views of the data in response to choices users make on a Web page.

Aspect ratio
The relationship between a graphic’s height and width.

ASR (Automated System Recovery)
A feature of Windows XP Professional (not Home Edition) that backs up key system information onto a disk that you can use to restart your computer.

Assignment operator
In VBA, the equal sign (=), used to assign a value to a property or a variable.

ATA-2
See IDE.

ATAPI (AT Attachment Protocol Interface)
An interface between your computer and attached CD-ROM drives and backup drives. Most of today’s PC computers use the standard Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface to address hard disk drives. ATAPI provides the additional commands needed for controlling a CD-ROM player or backup so that your computer can use the IDE interface and controllers to control these relatively newer device types. ATAPI is part of the Enhanced IDE (EIDE) interface, also known as ATA-2.

Attachment
A file, Outlook item, or object that is linked to, or contained in, an Outlook item. Files, items and objects can be attached to messages, contacts, appointments, tasks, and so on.

Auditing
The process of examining a worksheet for errors.

Authentication
The process by which a system identifies a user’s logon information by comparing the user’s entry against a list of authorized users.

AutoAddress
Outlook’s capability to separate an address into street, city, state, postal code, and country fields.

AutoArchive
An Outlook feature that archives messages automatically at scheduled intervals, clearing out old and expired items from folders. AutoArchive is active by default.

AutoComplete
A feature that compares text you are typing into a cell with text already entered in the same column and automatically completes the word or phrase if a match is found. You can accept the suggested entry or continue typing.

AutoCorrect
A customizable feature that corrects common spelling errors as you type.

AutoFill
A feature that enables you to automatically fill in a series of numbers, dates, or other items in a specified range.

AutoFilter
A command that displays an arrow next to a field name in a list, allowing you to display a subset of list data based on simple criteria.

AutoFit
The Excel feature that lets you double-click a column heading to automatically resize the column to the width of its longest entry.

AutoFormat
Predesigned combinations of shading, borders, fonts, fills and alignment that you can apply to a worksheet or a range.

Auto-hide
A Windows feature that provides the option for hiding the taskbar when you’re not using it.

AutoName Check
Outlook’s capability to verify that names entered into To, Cc, and Bcc fields exist in an address book.

AutoNumber field
In Access, a field in a table that automatically numbers each new record entered into a table. AutoNumber fields can be incremental or random.

Autorun
Feature on a CD-ROM that tells Windows to run a program on the CD-ROM whenever the CD-ROM is inserted into the drive.

AutoSave
Capability to automatically save data at predetermined intervals.

AutoSum
A button on the Standard toolbar that automatically inserts the SUM function in a cell; also lets you drag to select cells containing the data you want the function to calculate.

AVERAGE function
A worksheet function that calculates the average of specified values or numbers in a specified range.

AVI file
Video file with extension .avi

Axis
A common element in a chart. The x-axis (usually horizontal) plots the categories, and the y-axis (usually vertical) plots the values.

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B

Back solving
A problem-solving method in which you specify a solution and then find the input value that produces the answer you want; sometimes described as a what-if analysis in reverse.

Background
The underlying colors, shading, texture, and style of the color scheme.

Background Query
A query that Excel executes behind the scenes so that you can continue to perform other work in Excel.

Backup
Duplicate copy of information, stored separately in case something happens to the original copy.

Backward compatibility
The capability to use documents, settings, and so forth from earlier products.

Bandwidth
The amount of information that can be transferred along a wire or other medium, such as a satellite, at any given time. A higher bandwidth means more information coming through the wire at a time and, therefore, faster interaction with whatever is on the other side of that connection.

Bar chart
A chart that shows information as a series of horizontal bars.

BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
A high-level programming language initially developed as a means to teach programming. It has subsequently been developed into such programming languages as Visual Basic (VB), Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and Visual Basic Script (VBS).

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
A set of routines, usually in ROM, that support the transfer of information between such computer hardware components as the processor, keyboard, disks, memory and monitor.

Batch file
A list of DOS commands to execute, stored in a text file with the extension .bat.

Baud
The speed at which information is sent through a modem, equivalent to bits per second (bps). A higher baud rate means faster communications.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A text-based account that runs on a small computer such as a PC, sometimes connected to the Internet though most have been superseded by Internet sites.

BCC (Blind Carbon Copy)
Email address to which a copy of an e-mail message is sent without the other recipients seeing the address.

Beta
A version of a software product released to selected corporations and individuals for testing purposes prior to being released to the general public.

Binary file
A file coded so that its data can be ready by a computer, whose content must be interpreted by a program or a hardware processor that understands in advance exactly how it is formatted. The file is not in any externally identifiable format so that any program that wanted to could look for certain data at a certain place within the file. A program or hardware processor has to know exactly how the data inside the file is laid out to make use of the file.

Binary search / comparison
A digital scheme for locating a specific object in a large set, where each object in the set is given a key, the number of keys always being to a power of 2, listed in tabular form for comparison of a desired object’s position.

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
A system that enables interaction between the computer and its input (mouse/keyboard) and output (screen/printer) devices.

BIOS settings
A program that enables you to change BIOS settings on your computer, as the program a personal computer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on.

Bit
Short for binary digit, it represents a single switch that can be either on or off (1 or 0). A byte is a collection of eight bits.

Bitmap
A bit map (often spelled “bitmap”) that defines a display space and the color for each pixel or “bit” in the display space of a picture that is stored as a grid of dots.

BMP file
Graphics file in bitmap format (a Windows standard format for graphics files) with the extension .bmp.

Body
Text of an e-mail message, not including the header lines at the top of the message.

Boolean
A data type that can hold either of two mutually exclusive values, often expressed as yes/no, 1/0, on/off, or true/false.

Boolean query
A True or False query that utilizes logical operators including AND OR, IF THEN, EXCEPT, and NOT.

Boolean search
A database search that uses Boolean operators (usually AND and OR) to combine words or phrases to search for. Searching for “cat AND dog” finds items that contain both “cat” and “dog”; searching for “cat OR dog” finds items that contain either “cat” or “dog”, or both words.

Boot
Start up or turn on your computer.

Boot logging
A text file listing the events that occurred during computer and Windows startup.

Boot partition
Disk drive from which Windows loads on startup. Also see system partition.

Border
A formatting feature that is a solid or dashed line applied to one or more sides of a cell, or to a range of cells.

Bound
Linked, as when a form used to view table information is linked to the table on different computers in different locations. Also see unbound.

BPS (bits per second)
A measure of a modem’s speed, also expressed as baud.

Branch
The Windows registry has a tree-like structure. Sections of the structure are referred to as branches.

BRB
Often used in online chats as an abbreviation for Be Right Back (yes, Atlas on this site has a chatroom, free and always open!)

Break Mode
When code is running but execution is temporarily suspended, usually used to debug your code. Break mode lets you step through your code one command or one procedure at a time, rather than running all the commands at once.

Broadband
A generic term for high-speed Internet access such as cable and DSL.

Browser
A program that communicates with Web servers on the internet and displays Web pages.

Browsing
Moving from Web page to Web page, using a Web browser program like Internet Explorer.

Buffer
A data area shared by hardware devices or program processes that operate at different speeds or with different sets of priorities. The buffer allows each device or process to operate without being held up by the other.

Bug
An error in hardware or software that causes a program to execute incorrectly.

Bullet
A small graphic, such as a dot, that introduces a line or paragraph in a list.

Bullet points
A list of items in which each item is preceded by a symbol.

Bus technology
Network topology in which each computer connects to a main cable (the bus).

Business intelligence
A broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help enterprise users make better business decisions, including the activities of decision support systems, query and reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), statistical analysis, forecasting, and data mining.

Button
A graphical image or embedded object that, usually when clicked, executes a command such as a macro.

By reference
One way of passing an argument (the other is by value). When a procedure passes an argument to another procedure by reference, the recipient procedure gets access to the memory location where the original variable is stored and can change the original variable.

By value
One way of passing an argument (the other is by reference). When a procedure passes an argument to another procedure by value, the recipient procedure gets only a copy of the information in the variable and can’t change the information in the original variable.

Byte
A unit of data that is eight binary digits long, also the amount of space required to store one character, example, the word cat requires three bytes of storage and the word hello uses five bytes.

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C

CAB or cabinet file
File containing a group of files for installation with the file extension .cab. The Windows XP CD-ROM contains many cabinet files.

Cable modem
Device that connects your computer (through its network interface card) to a cable Internet account.

Cache
Pronounced “cash”, an area on disk (usually a folder) for the temporary storage of information, such as browsers that store recently viewed Web pages.

Cached Exchange Mode
A feature of Outlook that creates local copies of your mailbox and address book on your computer and keeps them synchronized. Cached Exchange Mode monitors your connection status and speed and optimizes data transfer accordingly.

Calculated control
In Access, a control on a form or report that gets its value by performing some calculation on data in the underlying table.

Calculated Field
In an Excel pivottable, a new item in a row or column field in which the values are the result of a custom calculation. In Access, a field in a query that automatically computes a value based on data in the table.

Calendar
The scheduling component of Outlook that is fully integrated with e-mail, contacts, and other Outlook features.

Call
To invoke a function or procedure.

Cancel button
The X button in the Formula bar that you click to cancel an unwanted cell entry and redisplay its original value.

Caption
The expository text associated with a graphic or other type of figure.

Case-sensitive
Whereby text must match uppercase and lowercase letters exactly in searches or password entries. A non-case-sensitive search, by contrast, matches any combination of uppercase and lowercase text.

Category
A keyword or phrase that you assign to Outlook items so that you can easily find, sort, filter, or group them.

Category Area
The PivotChart drop area in which the Category Field appears.

Category axis
The X-axis in an Excel chart, usually representing the categories into which data is divided, such as years or regions.

Category Field
A source data field added to the PivotChart’s category area; the field’s items form the chart’s X-axis values.

Category-5 or Cat-5 cable
Unshielded twisted-pair cable used for star topology LANs

CC (Carbon Copy)
The name or address of a person to whom an e-mail message is copied.

CD burning
Saving files on a writable or rewritable CD-ROM.

CDO (Collaboration Data Object)
A set of technologies which implement messaging and collaboration functionality in an application. CDO was previously known as Active Messaging and OLE Messaging.

CD-R
A writable CD-ROM on which data can be recorded once.

CD-RW
A rewritable CD-ROM, on which data recorded, erased, and re-recorded.

Cell
In a worksheet, the intersection of a column and a row, where you enter text or numbers.

Cell address
The unique column letter and row number that describe the exact location of any worksheet cell, such as C5.

Cell pointer
A highlighted rectangle around a cell that indicates the active cell.

Change history
A worksheet you can have Excel create that lists all changes made for a shared workbook, noting the users who made them.

Character
Any single letter, numeric digit, punctuation mark, or space.

Chart
A graphical representation of data that uses lines, bars, columns, pie slices, or other markers to make it easy to see trends and make comparisons.

Chart area
The entire area within the frame displayed when you click a chart.

Chart sheet
A separate, dedicated sheet that contains a chart linked to worksheet data.

Chart title
The heading displayed in the chart area that identifies the name or essence of the chart.

Chart Wizard
A series of dialog boxes that lets you create a chart and customize it as you create it.

Chat
A program or Internet service that enables users to communicate with one another by typing messages back and forth in real time. There is an Excel chatroom on this site, the CHATLAS Room !

Check box
Box onscreen that can either be blank or contain a check mark (or X), usually appearing in a dialog box.

Checkpoint
See Restore Point.

Class module
A custom module that contains the definition of an object class that you define in order to trap custom events.

Clear
An edit command that deletes contents or formatting; or a term that describes deselecting a checkbox or some other option.

ClearType
A feature of Windows XP that triples horizontal resolution for better display on LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screens.

Click
To rest the mouse pointer on some item onscreen and then press and release the primary mouse button.

Client
A computer, or software running on that computer, that accesses data or services on another computer or network.

Client / Server
A LAN configuration in which one or more computers (servers) provide services to users’ computers (clients).

Client-server network
Network on which server computers provide resources for the rest of the network, and client computers use only those resources.

Clip Art
Presupplied, ready-made art organized by topic that can be incorporated into applications.

Clipboard
A general storage area used by all Windows programs, mainly for copying and moving things from one place to another. Also see Office Clipboard

Clipboard file
A file saved by Clipboard Viewer, with the extension .clp.

Close
A command that closes the file so you can no longer work with it, but keeps Excel open so that you can continue to work on other workbooks.

Coaxial cable or Coax
Type of copper cable used to connect computers in a bus topology LAN. Coaxial cable is called “coaxial” because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance.

Code
Text and programming commands written in a programming language, such as Visual Basic for Applications.

Code module
A storage module that may contain subprocedures or functions.

Code window
In the Visual Basic Editor, the window that displays the selected module’s programming procedures.

Codec
A system for audio and video compression or decompression to minimize the amount of disk space required for storage.

Collection
In VBA, a group of objects, such as for workbooks, worksheets, or charts.

Column
One of the vertical sections or stacks of information in a table or spreadsheet.

Column Area
The PivotTable drop area in which the column field appears.

Column chart
A type of chart that portrays data in a series of vertical columns.

Column headings
The letters such as A, B, C etc (or numbers if you have set your display that way) in the gray boxes at the top of columns that uniquely identifies each column. Also see Column letter.

Column labels
Text or numbers you enter in cells above column data to identify the category or purpose of the data, examples “Last Name”, “First Name”, “Country”, etc.

Column letter
The letters such as A, B, C etc in the gray boxes at the top of columns that uniquely identifies each column. Also see Column headings.

Column selector button
The gray box containing the letter (or number) above the column.

COM (Component Object Model)
Microsoft’s standard for defining the programming interfaces that objects expose so that other objects can communicate with them.

COM file
An executable file, with the file extension .com.

Combination chart
Includes two or more chart types, such as showing one data series as a column and another as a line, created if the values in the data series vary widely and you want to emphasize differences in the data.

Combo box
A control that combines a list box and a text box, allowing the user to select an existing entry from a list or type a new entry.

Comma-delimited text file
A data file consisting of fields and records, stored as text, in which the fields are separated from each other by commas.

Command Bar
Another name for a toolbar, which can include toolbar buttons, menus, and shortcut menus.

Command button
A control shaped like a button to which you can attach code that runs when the button is clicked.

Command line
Command that you type at the DOS prompt, optionally followed by additional information.

Comment
In VBA, explanatory text preceded by an apostrophe character, explaining the code is doing (or trying to do). In worksheet cells, an annotation attached to a cell that displays within a box whenever the mouse pointer rests over the cell.

Comment indicator
The small red triangle that appears in the upper right corner of a cell containing a comment.

Comment out
In VBA, applying an apostrophe in front of codeline(s) to stop that code from executing.

Comparison operator
An operator that compares values, such as < (less than), > (greater than), and = (equal to).

Compatibility mode
Emulation of a previous version of your program, so that an older program can run correctly on a newer version.

Compile error
An error that occurs when VBA cannot correctly process a programming statement.

Compress
To reduce the size of a file, such as with WinZip.

Compressed file
A file that contains one or more files shrunk down to their most efficient size to minimize storage requirements and transfer them across a network, such as with .zip extension compressed by WinZip.

Computer name
The name assigned to a computer in a network, visible on the Computer Name tab of the System Properties dialog accessed through the Control Panel.

Concatenate
To join or chain together individual strings to make one string, often with the ampersand character.

Conditional Formatting
The format you define for a cell, based on its value or the outcome of a formula.

Consolidate
Data that is combined from two or more ranges but have a similar structure.

Consolidate by category
To combine data from multiple worksheets with different layouts and categories.

Consolidate by position
To combine data from multiple worksheets with the same layout.

Constant
In worksheet cells, a text value, numeric, or date value that is fixed as entered. In VBA, a fixed value or named item that keeps an unchanging (constant) value while a program is executing.

Constraint
A limit or maximum value (also see Solver).

Contact
List of names and addresses in the Outlook Address Book.

Context Menu
A menu that displays items relevant to the current context. To display a context menu, you right-click an object with the mouse (click with the non-primary button).

Control
An object such as a label, text box, option button, or check box in a form or embedded onto a worksheet that allows you to view or manipulate information.

Control property
A setting that determines the appearance of a control, what data it displays, and how that data looks. A control’s properties can be viewed and changed in its Properties dialog box.

Control source
The source of a control’s data – the field, table or query whose data will be displayed in the control.

Control Toolbox
The menu bar that contains ActiveX controls for userforms or worksheets.

Control variable
A variable that defines the number of times a loop executes, example, For iCounter = 1 to 10, iCounter is the control variable, in that it controls a maximum count of 10 iterations.

Cookie
A small file placed on your hard disk by a Web site, usually to record information about your account so that you don’t need to log on every time you visit.

Copy
An edit function whereby selected information is copied from its current location and temporarily stored on the Clipboard.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)
An older term for processor and microprocessor, the central unit in a computer containing the logic circuitry that performs the instructions of a computer’s programs.

Crash
Failure in which a program stops running, sometimes resulting in requiring the computer to reboot (shut down and restart).

Criteria
One or more expressions that filter a query by specifying the conditions that each record must meet to be included in the results.

Criteria range
A cell range containing one row of labels (usually a copy of column labels) and at least one additional row underneath it that contains the criteria you want to match.

Crop
Cutting off the top, bottom, or sides of a graphic to trim it to a smaller size.

Crossover cable
Category-5 cable that connects two computers’ network interface cards, creating a two-computer LAN without a hub.

Crosstab query
A query that calculates and restructures data for easier analysis.

CS (Cable Select)
Method of determining which IDE or EIDE device is primary and which is secondary based on the position on the cable.

CSV (Comma Separated Values)
A type of text file in which the items on each line are separated by commas.

Cursor
A screen element such as a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the text you type will be inserted. Not the same as mouse pointer, which indicates the location of the mouse.

Custom Calculation
A formula that you define to produce PivotTable values that otherwise do not appear in the report if you use only the source data field and Excel’s built-in summary calculations.

Custom number formats
Special formats you can create and apply to numeric date or dates.

Cut
A command that removes the cell contents from the selected area of a worksheet and places them on the Clipboard, so you can place them in a different range without having made a copy.

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D

DAO (Data Access Objects)
A library of objects and their associated methods and properties that can be used to represent objects in databases, enabling Excel to interact directly with databases through VBA.

Data
Unprocessed or calculated values, raw facts, or assumptions that are stored in a document such as a worksheet or database.

Data access page
A dynamic Web page that allows users to directly manipulate data in a database via the Internet.

Data Analysis
The application of tools and techniques to organize, study, reach conclusions about, and sometimes also make predictions about, a specific collection of information.

Data Area
The PivotTable drop area in which the data field appears.

Data Connection Field
A data source that connects to a wide variety of data, including ODBC, SQL Server OLAP Services, Oracle, and Web-based data retrieval services.

Data Field
A source data field added to a PivotTable’s data area; Excel uses the field’s numeric data to perform the report’s summary calculations.

Data form
In an Excel list, a dialog box that displays one record at a time, from which you can add, delete, or edit records.

Data map
An Excel chart that shows information plotted on a map with symbols representing data points.

Data marker
In an Excel chart, a plotted graphical representation of a single data point in a worksheet cell. Also see Data point.

Data point
In an Excel chart, a plotted graphical representation of a single data point in a worksheet cell. Also see Data marker.

Data series
The selected range in a worksheet that Excel converts into a graphic and displays as a chart.

Data type
In VBA, the kind of data assigned to a variable, such as String, Integer, or Object. In worksheet cells or tables, the kind of information that will be stored in a field, such as Text, Number, or Date/Time.

Data validation
An Excel feature that lets you limit cell entries to acceptable values or within reasonable ranges you specify.

Data Warehouse
A data structure with a central fact table that contains the data you want to summarize, and pointers to surrounding related tables.

Database
An organized collection of related information. In Excel, a database is often called a list.

Database application
A database that is refined and made simpler for the user by the sophisticated use of queries, forms, reports, a switchboard, and various other tools.

Database Executable (MDE)
A compiled version of a database. Saving a database as an MDE file compiles all modules, removes all editable source code, and compacts the destination database.

Datasheet view
In Access, the view that lets you see several records in a table or query result at a time, as opposed to form view, which generally shows only one record.

Date serial number
In Excel, each day is assigned a different serial number, with the default of serial number 1 for January 1, 1900; the serial number 2 for January 2, 1900 and so on. Optionally, you can use the 1904 date system, under which serial number 1 is assigned to January 2, 1904.

DBMS
An abbreviation for database management system. Popular examples of database management systems include dBASE, Paradox, and Microsoft Access.

DCC (Direct Cable Connection)
A means of connecting two computers with a cable, as opposed to Ethernet cards, hubs, or modems.

DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange)
A way for Windows programs to exchange information such when you change a form in your database program or a data item in a spreadsheet program, they can be set up to also change these forms or items anywhere they occur in other programs you may use.

Debug
In programming, to correct an error in code, or to test a procedure for possible existence of bugs that would need to be fixed if found.

Declare
In VBA, to establish and define a variable.

Default
The information or mode that a program uses unless you specify otherwise.

Defragmenting
The process of locating the noncontiguous fragments of data into which a computer file may be divided as it is stored on a hard disk, and rearranging the fragments and restoring them into fewer fragments or into the whole file, reducing data access time and improving storage efficiency.

Delete
A command that often is thought of a removing cell contents from a worksheet, but literally means to remove from existence, such as a graphical object or workbook. Deleting a row, column, or cell actually replaces the existing object with a new fresh such object.

Delimited Text File
A type of text file format in which each record and each field is separated from the next by a known character called a delimiter.

Delimiter
In a text file, a character that separates columns of data, such as a tab, comma, space, semicolon, or a character of your choice.

Dependent cell
A cell, usually containing a formula, whose value changes depending on the values in another cell or cells.

Descending order
The order that is opposite of ascending order. Descending order is 3, 2, 1; or Z to A.

Design mode
During the time you are either working in the Visual Basic Editor (except when you are running code) or you are setting properties on activex embedded controls on your worksheet.

Design view
In Access, the view that lets you create an object or change its appearance. Clicking on an object name in the database window and then clicking on the Design button takes you to the design view of that object.

Desktop
The screen that first appears when you log on to Windows, usually containing shortcut icons.

Desktop publishing
A process that combines text and graphics in an appealing and easy to read format, such as a report, newsletter, or book.

Desktop theme
A combination of sounds, wallpaper, screen saver, and icons that give your entire desktop a particular appearance.

Developer (application developer)
A person who creates specialized, user-friendly applications for other computer users to work with.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
A program that automatically assigns IP addresses to computers on a network so that they don’t need to be addressed manually.

DHCP server
A computer running DHCP software that assigns IP addresses to other computers on a network. Internet Connection Sharing includes a DHCP server.

DHTML (Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language)
A later version of the standard authoring language HTML that includes codes for dynamic Web page elements.

Dialog Box
A type of window that allows you to change optional settings or give commands in a program, with most including an OK and Cancel button.

Digital certificate
Encrypted digital information that uniquely identifies its holder, used to create a digital signature for a project.

Digital ID
File containing encryption and digital identification information that you can use to digitally sign or encrypt e-mail and newsgroup messages.

Digital Signature
E-mail message that has been encrypted with a digital ID to prove who sent it.

Dim statement
The typical method of declaring a VBA variable. You can use the Dim statement to name the variable, to declare it as a specific type such as String or Integer, to declare it as an array of values, and (if an array) to specify the bounds of its dimensions.

Dimension
In cubes, a category of data in a data warehouse, analogous to a row, column, or page field in an ordinary data source.

Direct network connection
Connecting two computers with a serial cable to allow file or printing sharing. Called Direct Cable Connection (DCC) in previous versions of Windows.

Directory
A place on a disk where a group of files is stored. Also called a folder.

Directory server
A place on the Internet where people who want to communicate gather. Used in conjunction with a teleconferencing program such as Microsoft NetMeeting.

Disk drive
A physical device in the computer capable of storing information, even while the computer is turned off. Typically, the main hard disk is named C, and CD-ROM drives might be D, E, or some higher letter.

Distribution List
In Outlook, a list of people to whom a message is to be sent. Outlook stores distribution lists in the Contacts folder.

DLL (dynamic link library)
A collection of small programs, any of which can be called when needed by a larger program that is running in the computer.

DLL file
In a DLL, the small program that lets the larger program communicate with a specific device such as a printer or scanner is often packaged as a DLL program (usually referred to as a DLL file). DLL files that support specific device operation are known as device drivers, executable files with the file extension .dll invoked from a running program.

DMA (Direct Memory Access)
A system board facility used by a few medium-speed devices to communicate with the CPU.

DNS (Domain Name Server or System)
A database used by Internet TCP/IP hosts to resolve host names and IP addresses such that internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. This enables users of remote computers to access one another by host names such as www.whatever.com rather than numeric IP addresses.

DOC
Usually a Word file with the extension .doc to mean Document.

Docked toolbar
A toolbar that is attached to the edge of a window or some location you specify.

Docking station
Hardware device into which you plug a laptop to provide connection to a monitor, keyboard, mouse, local area network, and/or additional PC Card slots.

Document Recovery task pane
The window that opens on the left side of your screen in case your Excel session is interrupted by an unplanned computer shutdown, such as a power interruption; presents workbook version(s) the program “rescued” and prompts you to choose a version to save.

Document window
The part of a Word program where you enter and edit text.

Document workspace
A Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services site that contains your Microsoft Office Word, Microsoft Office Excel, Microsoft Office PowerPoint, or Microsoft Visio files, making them available to the people working on the document, called members, you specify.

Domain
On a LAN, a group of computers administered by one server. On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain is organized in levels. The top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or a category such as “commercial”). The second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet, example, atlaspm.

Domain Name Server (DNS)
Computer on the Internet that translates between Internet domain names and numeric IP addresses. You can specify two DNSs for an Internet connection: a primary server and a secondary server.

Domain Name Service (DNS)
A service provided by a DNS server that translates host-names into their corresponding IP addresses.

DOS (Disk Operating System)
The first operating system for PCs, a non-graphical line-oriented command- or menu-driven operating system, with a relatively simple interface but not overly “friendly” user interface. Its prompt to enter a command looks like this: C:>

DOS name
Filename used by DOS programs and early Windows programs, limited to an eight-character name and a three-character extension.

DOS prompt
Prompt that DOS displays when it is waiting for you to type a command.

DOS Virtual Machine (VM)
Emulation program that allows DOS programs to run under Windows XP.

Double Precision
A double-precision floating point number that occupies 64 bits of memory, and is therefore more precise than a Single Precision variable, which occupies only 32 bits of memory.

Double-click
To point to an item and then click the primary mouse button twice in rapid succession.

Download
To copy a file from some remote computer on the Internet (or elsewhere) onto your own local PC.

Draft
In Outlook, a message that has not yet been sent.

Drag
To hold down the primary mouse button while moving the mouse.

Drag and Drop
To move or copy an item by holding down the mouse button as you move the item to some new location. To drop the item, release the mouse button.

Drawing object
An image created within Excel or Word – – an AutoShape, a diagram a line, or a WordArt object.

Drill Down
View the details that underlie a specific data value in a PivotTable, usually by double-clicking an element in the Data area.

Drive
Short for disk drive.

Drive letter
The single-letter name assigned to a disk drive or network drive. For example, your local hard disk is probably named Drive C.

Driver
Short for device driver, a program used to control or communicate with some device connected to your computer, such as a mouse.

Drop
To place an item elsewhere that is being dragged, by releasing the mouse button after dragging.

Drop Area
In a PivotTable report, special areas representing rows, columns, data, and pages to which you can drag fields from the field list to produce summary information.

Drop-down menu
Menu that appears when you click a command on a menu bar.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A way of connecting to the Internet that allows high speed access through traditional telephone lines.

DSL modem
Device that connects a computer (usually via a network interface card) to a DSL phone line.

DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
A specialized computer chip for compressing video signals. DSP refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications. DSP is quite complex, but basically it works by clarifying, or standardizing, the levels or states of a digital signal. A DSP circuit is able to differentiate between human-made signals, which are orderly, and noise, which is inherently chaotic.

Dual-boot installation
Computer that can be started in either of two operating systems; for example, Windows XP and Windows 98, or Windows XP and Linux.

Duplicate key
In Access, a value that already exists in a table’s primary key field or in an index field that does not allow duplicates.

Duplicate query
A form of select query that locates records that have the same information in one or more fields that you specify.

DVD (Digital Video or Versatile Disk)
A digital disk that can contain video material such as a full length movie or home video.

Dynamic IP addressing
System that assigns an address to a computer when the computer connects to the network, whereby each time the computer connects, it may get a different address.

Dynaset
The result of running a query or filter, which shows only the set of records requested.

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E

Early Binding
In VBA, code where a reference is established to the type of library for the object (example, a Word application of a certain version) being created in order to access the type library for that object, as opposed to Late Binding, whereby an object is created that refers to the application but not to a specific version, hence not accessing the version’s library type directly but not relying on a particular version to be present on the host system.

ECMAScript
See JavaScript.

Edit
A change made to the contents of a cell or worksheet, or to a document.

Edit box
The Forms control object that is now known as a TextBox in the ActiveX control toolbox.

E-mail
Electronic mail sent over the Internet or some other online service such as Microsoft Outlook.

E-mail Address
The information that uniquely identifies the e-mail account of a message recipient, including the user name and domain name separated by the @ sign, example, tom@atlaspm.com.

E-mail server
A computer on a network that routes and stores e-mail messages.

Embedded cascading style sheet
A document embedded within a Web page that defines formats and styles for different page elements.

Embedded chart
A graphical representation of data created within the worksheet rather than as a separate worksheet.

Embedded Object
An object in a destination file that does not update when the data in the source file changes.

Embedding
To place a copy of a source object such as a graphic or Word document, into another file such as an Excel worksheet, whereby changes to the source file are not reflected in the destination document because there is no connection between the two.

EMF
The file extension on an Enhanced Metafile graphic filename.

EML
The file extension used for e-mail messages by Outlook Express to reply to messages automatically.

EMS (Expanded Memory System)
Memory management system that allowed DOS programs to use more than 640KB of memory.

Enabled
Set as available for use.

Encrypted
A means of encoding the contents of a file into an unreadable format to prevent unauthorized access to its contents.

Enter
To accept or confirm a cell value, usually accomplished by pressing the Enter key, Tab key, one of the arrow keys, or clicking the Enter button on the Formula Bar.

Enter button
The green check mark in the formula bar used to confirm an entry.

Error handler
A section of code designed to trap errors, analyze them, and take action if they match given error codes.

Ethernet
Type of local area network communication, including standards for cabling and network cards.

Ethernet cable
The cable used to attach a PC’s network adapter card to an Ethernet concentrator.

Event
In the Excel object model, something that happens to an object, and is recognized by the computer so an appropriate action can be taken.

Event procedure
Code that runs directly in response to an event.

Excel
The spreadsheet program that is part of Microsoft Office.

Executable or EXE file
A program file, with the file extension .exe.

Exit
To close a program such as Excel; you can use either the Exit command on the file menu, or the Close button on the Excel title bar, which closes both the program as well as any open documents, prompting you to save any changes you have made to them since you last saved them.

Expansion slot
A slot on the computer’s motherboard into which you can plug expansion cards, such as Ethernet cards, graphics display cards, and other internal devices.

Explode
To move a pie slice away from a pie chart to call attention to that slice.

Exponential trendline
In an Excel chart, a line chart that projects future values assuming that the series will increase or decrease at an increasingly rapid rate over time.

Export
The process of converting and saving a file format to be used in another program.

Expression
A combination of functions, field values, constants, and operators that yield a result. Expressions can be simple, such as >100, or more complex, such as ((ProductPrice*Quantity)*.90)+(Shipping+Handling).

Expression Builder
A feature used to create formulas (expressions) used in query criteria, form and report properties, and table validation rules.

Extension
Last part of a filename, attached to the rest of the filename by a period (sometimes called a dot) followed by three letters (4 letters in Office 2007) to indicate the file type, examples, .xls, .xlsx, .txt.

External reference indicator
The exclamation point (!) used in a formula to indicate that a referenced cell is outside the active sheet.

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FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers).

Field
In a list such as in an Excel worksheet or Access database, a column that describes a characteristic about records, such as first name or city.

Field name
The label above each column of field information in a list.

Field Type
The type of data a field can or is meant to contain, such as currency, date/time, integer, and yes/no.

File
The basic unit of storage on a disk, having its own unique file name in a given folder.

File extension
Last part of a filename, attached to the rest of the filename by a period (sometimes called a dot) followed by three letters (4 letters in Office 2007) to indicate the file type, examples, .xls, .xlsx, .txt.

File format
The way that a program stores a file so that the program can open the file later by a program designed to read that format.

File Icon
An icon that represents a file.

File name
The name of a file, unique within the folder it resides, example test.xls.

File property
Describes a characteristic of a file such as file type, file size, storage location, author’s name and date last revised.

File sharing
Allowing multiple PCs on a local area network access to the same set of files on one PC.

File structure
A description of a file or group of files that are to be treated together for some purpose. Such a description includes file layout and location for each file under consideration.

File system
Information that keeps track of which files are stored, where in a partition on a disk. Windows XP supports FAT, FAT32, and NTFS partitions.

Fill color
Cell background color.

Fill handle
A small black square in the lower-right corner of the current cell or a selected range, which when dragged copies the contents of the current cell or selected range, or fills a series, to adjacent cells.

Filter
A feature that enables you to hide all the rows in a list except those that meet specified criteria.

Find
A command used to locate information the user specifies.

Find and Replace
An Excel feature that lets you find data you specify and replace it with other data you specify.

Firewall
An application that protects a LAN or an individual computer from unauthorized outside access.

FireWire
Apple Computer’s version of a standard, IEEE 1394, High Performance Serial Bus, for connecting devices to your personal computer. FireWire provides a single plug-and-socket connection on which up to 63 devices can be attached with data transfer speeds up to 400 Mbps (megabits per second).

Fixed spacing
Typeface design in which all letters in the typeface are the same width, example, Courier

Fixed-iteration loop
A loop that repeats a set number of times.

Fixed-size array
An array with a fixed number of subscripts.

Fixed-Width Text File
A text file containing data where the items on each line use up a set amount of space.

Flame
To rant, rave, or taunt by email or on an Internet message board or blog, by posting obnoxious messages.

Floating toolbar
A toolbar within its own window that is not anchored anywhere specifically on the worksheet.

Floppy disk
Also called a diskette, a removable disk that stores 2 or so MB, mostly outdated in favor of flash drives and CDs whose storage capacity is much larger.

Focus
A general term for the insertion point, cursor, highlight, or whatever is indicating where your next action will take place.

Folder
A named storage location on a disk that lets you group and organize files.

Folder tree
Diagram showing which folders are contained in which other folders, akin to a tree with primary branches (folders) off the trunk (drive), and subfolders that branch off their parent folders.

Font
The formatted typeface or design of a set of characters that displays those characters as a given size, color, name type, etc.

Font size
The height of a font, measured in points; one point equals 1/72 of an inch.

Footer
Information that prints at the bottom of each printed page or is visible in Print Preview, such as date, page number, etc.

Foreign key
In Access, when a one-to-many relationship exists between tables, the field that uniquely identifies each record on the “one side” of the relationship is called the primary key. The corresponding field in the table on the “many side” of the relationship is called the foreign key.

Form
Another term for userform but in a less sophisticated design is also referred to in terms of an organized range in a worksheet with cells meant to accept data input akin to a userform.

Form properties
Properties assigned to an entire userform, as opposed to a section or control on a form.

Form view
In Access, a way of viewing data in a table one record at a time, similar to a printed fill-in-the-blank form.

Format
The appearance, or act of changing the appearance, of cell entries or cells to enhance their readability, almost never changing the actual underlying cell values but only changing how they look.

Format Painter
A feature used to copy the formatting applied to one set of text or in one cell to another.

Formatting
Writing the file system on a disk or partition of a disk.

Formula
A set of symbols and values that perform some kind of calculation and produce a result. All Excel formulas have the same general structure: an equals sign (=) followed by one or more operands separated by one or more operators.

Formula bar
The area above the Excel workspace where you can enter and edit data in a worksheet cell, or view the contents or formula of a selected cell.

Fragmentation
Storage of files in discontinuous groups of sectors on your disk that can result in reduced disk performance, cured by defragmenting the disk.

Frame
In a userform, a control that groups other controls by containment. On a website, a section of the screen that displays its own unique page.

Freeware
Programs that are entirely free to use and frequently downloadable from the Internet.

Freeze panes
To keep rows and columns in place while you scroll rows and columns in other parts of a worksheet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A common method of sending files from one computer to another by way of the Internet.

FTP client
A program that lets you upload files to, or download files from, an FTP server.

FTP server
An Internet host computer that acts as a file archive, allowing other computers to upload or download files by using FTP.

Function
In a worksheet, a special, predefined formula built into Excel that provides a shortcut for a commonly used calculations such as SUM and AVERAGE. In VBA and API, a unit of code that begins with the declaration Function, ends with the keywords End Function, and returns a result.

Function Wizard
A series of dialog boxes that lets you search for a function and then prompts you for each function argument.

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G

G, GB, Gig
Abbreviation for gigabyte, roughly one billion bytes.

Gateway
Device or program that connects your LAN to the Internet (or one network to another network), passing messages between the computers on the LAN and computers on the Internet.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A popular compacted format for graphics files that is widely used in Web pages.

Gigabyte
Roughly one billion bytes.

Goal cell
In back solving, a cell containing a formula in which you can substitute values to find a specific value or goal.

Goal seek
A Microsoft Excel tool that enables you to determine a value of a formula variable that would be required to yield a given result.

Graphic
A picture, photograph, or drawn object, often in the format jpeg, gif, and bmp.

Gridlines
On a worksheet, the visible and optionally printable outlines of cells. In a chart, horizontal or vertical lines that make the chart easier to read.

Group box
A frame-like control from the Forms toolbar.

Grouping
Two or more objects that can be manipulated as a single object, or an action that allows a set of elements to be moved, sized, or otherwise changed as a single unit.

GUI (graphical user interface)
Pronounced gooey, the icon-oriented interface offered by Windows XP and other modern operating systems.

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Handout Master
In PowerPoint, the part of a template that controls the characteristics (the background color, text color, font, and font size) of the handouts in a presentation.

Hard disk
Disk that is sealed into its disk drive, usually referred to as the computer’s primary internal drive.

Hard-coding
Writing fixed code as opposed to variable code.

Hardware
The physical components of a computer or its peripherals that you can see and touch, such as the computer itself, or a printer, or scanner, or monitor.

Header
Information that prints at the top of each printed page or is visible in Print Preview, such as date, page number, etc.

Header column
The column in a table that contains the title of each row.

Header row
The row in a table that contains the title of each column.

Hibernate
A means of saving the system state to disk prior to shutting down the computer, and then reinstating that state automatically when the computer restarts.

Hide
To make rows, columns, formulas, sheets, or objects invisible to workbook users.

History
List of recently opened workbooks or displayed Web pages.

Hit counter
A feature on a Web site, usually on the home page, that counts the number of visits to the site.

Hive
Similar to a folder, a group of Registry entries.

HLOOKUP function
An Excel function that searches horizontally across rows to locate a specific piece of information.

Home page
The starting page for a set of Web pages in a Web site, usually the first page you come to when you visit a Web site on the Internet.

Host
Any computer you can access via the Internet or phone lines. In direct cable connection, the PC with the shared resources you want to access.

Host address
On the Internet, address of a host computer.

Host computer
A computer that has the resources to be shared over a LAN, direct network connection, or the Internet.

Hosting
The process or service of storing a Web site on a configured Web server and serving it to the intended audience.

Hot docking
The capability to connect a portable computer to its docking station without turning off the computer.

Hot swapping
Installing or uninstalling a piece of hardware while the computer is turned on.

Hovering
Pausing the mouse pointer over an object to display more information, such as a comment of hyperlink screen tip.

HT file
HyperTerminal connection file, with the extension .ht.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The tagging system of formatting pages of documents that a Web browser such as Internet Explorer can read.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used for sending hypertext documents on the Internet and providing documents on the World Wide Web to call one another.

HTTPS
Secure version of HTTP, the protocol with which Web browsers communicate with Web servers.

Hub
Device to which you can connect multiple cables so other computers can connect in a topology LAN.

Hyperlink
Text, graphic, or path associated with a hyperlink address which, when clicked, jumps to information in the same database, another database, another location on your computer or network, or on the Internet.

Hypertext
Text that contains links to other information in the same document or to information in other documents.

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I.Link
See Firewire.

Icon
Little picture on your screen that responds with an action when you click it with the mouse.

ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)
A feature of Windows XP that allows multiple computers in a network to share a single Internet connection and account.

ICS client
Computer on a LAN that uses an ICS server to share a connection to the Internet.

ICS server
Computer running the Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) proxy server software and serving as a gateway from a LAN to the Internet.

IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
A standard type of disk connection, used for hard disks and CD-ROM drives. EIDE (or ATA-2) is an enhanced version of IDE.

IEEE 1394
A standard for high-speed transfer of a data through a cable. Also see FireWire.

IF function
Used to perform one of two operations in a single cell, based on the evaluation of some condition being true or false.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
A protocol that organizes messages on the server and you choose messages to download by viewing their headers.

Import
To bring data created in another program into Excel.

Inbox
In Outlook, the folder that receives incoming email messages.

Index
In an Excel workbook, the numerical position of worksheets in their order from left to right. In Access, a feature that speeds up sorting and searching for data in a table by automatically storing the order of key fields.

INI or Initialization file
File that contains configuration information used when a program loads, with the extension .ini.

Inner Field
In a pivot table, the field that is closest to the data area in the row or column area.

Inner join
In Access, a join that combines records from two tables that have matching values in a common field. Example, suppose two tables – Customers and Orders – each have a CustomerID field. An inner join of these tables would match customers and the orders they placed. No information would appear about customers who haven’t placed orders.

Insert Function button
On the Excel Formula Bar, the button that starts the Function Wizard, enabling you to search for, select, and enter any function.

Insertion point
The blinking vertical bar on the screen, such as in a cell or Formula Bar, that indicates where any characters you type will appear.

Instant messaging
A method of communication in which you send electronic messages that appear on the recipient’s screen immediately, for real time communication.

Integer variable
A type of variable used for storing whole numbers ranging in value from -32,768 to 32,767.

Interactive workbook
An Excel workbook saved in HTML format that users can manipulate using their Web browsers.

Internet
The world-wide network of computers and smaller networks.

Internet Explorer
The Web browser developed by Microsoft Corporation that lets users explore the World Wide Web.

Internet mail
A type of e-mail account that requires that you connect to the e-mail server over the Internet, POP3, IMAP, and HTTP (for example, Hotmail) are examples of Internet mail accounts.

Intranet
Internet-like computer networks within organizations used by, and accessible only to, a group of people, often employees of one company.

IP (Internet Protocol)
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.

IP (Internet Protocol) Address
A number that uniquely identifies a computer on a network. The format is usually xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx where xxx is any number from 0 to 255. On a local area network, each computer typically has an IP address that starts with 192.168.

IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)
A networking protocol from Novell that interconnects networks that use Novell’s NetWare clients and servers.

IRQ (Interrupt Request Line)
The line a hardware device uses to get the attention of the processor, an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation, such as when a printer has finished printing.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
A high-performance telephone line that is mainly used to get faster access to, and transmission of data across, the Internet.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
An organization that provides access to the Internet.

Iteration
One cycle through a loop.

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J

Java
Language for writing applets that can be sent over the Web so that they can be executed by your computer.

JavaScript
Language often used for extending HTML by embedding scripts in Web pages, stored in files with the extension .js.

Join
In Access, a query operation that combines some or all records from multiple tables. Access supports three types of joins: inner join, outer join, and self-join.

JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
A compact format for storing photo-quality graphic images with more than 256 colors, well-suited for use on the World Wide Web.

Junction point
See mount point.

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K

K or KB
Abbreviation for Kilobyte or 1,024 bytes.

Kernel
The essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system, synonymous to nucleus, not to be confused with BIOS.

Key field
In a database, the field in a table that uniquely identifies each record in that table, such as a social security number.

Keyword
In searches, a word you type that is a primary theme or likely inclusion of the wanted text. In VBA, a word defined as part of the VBA language, such as the name of a statement or of a function.

Kilobyte
1,024 bytes.

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L

Label
A control on a form or report that displays descriptive text, such as a title, caption, or instructions. Also refers to descriptive text or other information in a cell that identifies the rows and columns of a worksheet.

Label control
A control on a form or report that displays descriptive text, such as a title, caption, or instructions.

Labels
The non data area elements of a PivotTable. The labels include the field buttons, field items, and page area drop-down lists. Also row and column headers

LAN (Local Area Network)
A computer network limited to a small area, such as one building or group of buildings.

Landscape
A print orientation in which the page is wider than it is tall.

Late Binding
In VBA, code whereby an object is created that refers to the application but not to a specific version, hence not accessing the version’s library type directly but not relying on a particular version to be present on the host system, as opposed to Early Binding, where a reference is established to the type of library for the object (example, a Word application of a certain version) being created in order to access the type library for that object.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
A software protocol for enabling anyone to locate organizations, individuals, and other resources such as files and devices in a network, whether on the public Internet or on a corporate intranet. LDAP is a “lightweight” (smaller amount of code) version of Directory Access Protocol (DAP), which is part of X.500, a standard for directory services in a network.

Legend
A chart element that identifies patterns or colors assigned to data; a list that identifies each data series in a datasheet.

Line break
A manual break that forces the text that follows it to the next line. Also called a text wrapping break.

Line chart
A graph of data that is mapped by a series of lines to show changes in data over time and help identify trends.

Linear search
A simple form of search, starting at the beginning of the array and continuing until the target item is either found or the end of the array is reached.

Linear trendline
In an Excel chart, a line chart that projects future values assuming that the trend will continue at a steady rate.

Link
To connect a source object (such as text, a graphic, or a worksheet) to a destination file (such as a worksheet, database, or word processing file) so that any changes to the source will automatically update in the destination file. Can also mean hyperlink.

Linked object
An object in a destination file that updates whenever the data in the source file changes.

List
A worksheet collection of related information with an organizational structure that makes it easy to add, edit, and sort data, akin to a database table.

List box
A control that displays a list of values to choose from.

Live attachments
Attachments saved on a SharePoint Document Workspace Web site, where a group can collaborate to work on files and discuss a project. Also called shared attachments.

Local
Everything stored in or directly connected to the computer at which you’re sitting, rather than being stored on or attached to a computer connected to your computer by a network.

Local computer
Your own computer, rather than a remote computer connected to your computer over a network.

Local disk
Disk drive connected to your own computer (as opposed to a network disk).

Local printer
Printer attached to your own computer.

Local scope
Another name for procedure scope, which makes a variable available only to the procedure that declares it.

Lock
To format a row, column, or sheet so that data or objects cannot be changed after you protect the sheet.

Logical operator
One of the Boolean operators: AND, OR and NOT.

Logical test
The first segment in the IF function syntax, which states “IF a particular condition is true”.

Loop
A programming structure that repeats one or more actions, bounded by however many iterations you specify in the code.

Lowercase
Small letters, as opposed to capital, or uppercase, letters.

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M

M, MB, Meg
Abbreviation for megabyte, roughly one million bytes.

MAC (Media Access Control) address
A unique number assigned to every network adapter at the time it is manufactured, as a unique hardware number.

Macro
A set of instructions, or code, that performs an automated task you specify also called a sub procedure.

Mail Client
A computer, or the software running on a computer such as Outlook, that can receive e-mail from, and send e-mail to, a mail server.

Mail Server
Computer that handles incoming or outgoing e-mail as service to its mail clients.

Mailbox
Location on your mail server where your e-mail is stored until your retrieve it using your mail client.

Mainframe
A high-performance computer used for large-scale computing purposes that require greater availability and security than a smaller-scale machine can offer. Historically, mainframes have been associated with centralized rather than distributed computing, although that distinction is blurring as smaller computers become more powerful and mainframes become more multi-purpose.

Make Table query
A query that creates a new table from all or part of the data in one or more tables, helpful when you need to export data to a non-relational program, such as a spreadsheet.

Manual checkpoint
A snapshot of your Windows and program files created by the System Restore program.

Many-to-Many relationship
A relationship formed between two tables that each have a one-to-many relationship with a third table. See also one-to-many relationship, one-to-one relationship.

MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface)
A set of API functions and an OLE interface that Outlook and other messaging clients use to interface with message service providers.

Mapped network drive
A drive to which you have assigned a drive letter, used for quickly accessing files stored in locations that are not likely to change.

Marquee
The moving border that surrounds a cell when you are copying or cutting it before pasting it to its destination.

Mask
Especially in database tables, a field property that determines what data can be entered in a field, how the data looks, and the format in which it is stored.

Master File Table
Table that stores information about each sector in an NTFS partition.

Maximized window
A window that takes up the entire screen or is running at its maximum window size.

Measure
A column of numeric values within a data warehouse fact table. A measure represents the data that you want to summarize.

Media
Graphics, videos, sound effects, or other material that can be inserted into a Web page.

Megabyte
Roughly one million bytes.

Member
The items that appear within each level in a data warehouse dimension.

Memo field
In database tables, a field that can store a large amount of text.

Memory
Usually refers to the random access memory (RAM) component of a PC, which is the temporary storage your computer uses for the programs you are running and the files you currently have open.

Menu
A list of commands or options a user can select to perform a desired action.

Menu Bar
The gray bar below the title bar containing names of menus, which you click to view and select program commands to manipulate and analyze data. In Office 2007, the menu bar has been supplanted by the Ribbon.

Merged cells
A single cell that is created by combining two or more selected cells whose reference is the upper left cell in the original selected range.

Message box
Any box that appears onscreen to display a message. In VBA, a Message Box may ask a question that requires a Yes/No answer, sometimes with an option to Cancel an action.

Method
In VBA, an action that can be performed on or applied to an object, example, Select, Copy, Clear.

MHTML (Multilingual Hypertext Markup Language)
An embedded browser and gateway service that permits browsing in Web documents containing non-English characters, such as those used in the Chinese, Greek, Japanese, and Russian languages.

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
A standard for storing and playing musical notes, which are then played by the sound card or a MIDI device.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension)
A widely used method of including non-text information, such as attached files, in e-mail messages.

Minimized window
Window that is not displayed, so that only the window’s button on the taskbar appears on the screen.

Mirrored volume
Volume in which the data is stored redundantly on two or more disks, so that if one disk failed, the information is available on another.

Mixed reference
In an Excel formula, a combination of an absolute and a relative reference. It has a dollar sign before either its row component or its column component but not both, examples. $A1 or A$1.

Modal
Describes a form such as a userform that keeps the focus until you explicitly close the form, preventing the user from working in the application while the form remains on the screen. Most dialog boxes are really modal forms.

Mode indicator
Text on the left side of the status bar in the Excel window that tells which mode, state, or status the Excel program is in, such as “Ready” or “Edit”.

Modeless
Said of a userform that is not modal, meaning it allows the user to continue to work in the application while the user form remains on screen.

Modem (modulator/demodulator)
Device that connects your computer to a phone line or cable line by modulating outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line, and demodulating the incoming analog signal, converting it to a digital signal for the digital device.

Modifier keys
Keys that you hold down while pressing another key, such as SHIFT, CTRL, and ALT.

Module
A storage container for code.

Monitor
The big TV-like component of a computer.

Motherboard
A motherboard is the physical arrangement in a computer that contains the computer’s basic circuitry and components.

Mount point
Pathname to which a partition or disk drive has been assigned (mounted).

Mounting
Assigning a pathname to a partition or disk drive.

Mouse pointer
Indicator on the screen that shows where the mouse is pointing or what it is hovering over.

MP3
A format used for storing CD-quality music on computer disks.

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) or MPG
A format used for storing video for presentation on a computer screen.

MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
Another name for DOS, one of the earliest operating systems used in personal computers.

MSN (The Microsoft Network)
An online service provided by Microsoft.

Multiboot
Or dual-boot. Computer with two or more operating systems installed. You choose which operating system to boot (run).

Multidimensional Data
OLAP data in which the fact table contains keys to multiple dimension tables.

Multitasking
Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time. The operating system is able to keep track of where you are in these tasks and go from one to the other without losing information.

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N

Name box
Displays the cell address of the current cell, or the name of a cell or range of cells, or the name of a selected embedded object.

Named range
A range of cells given a meaningful name; it retains its name when moved and can be referenced in a formula.

NAT (Network Address Translation)
Te translation of an Internet Protocol address used within one network to a different IP address known within another network.

Navigating
Displaying the contents of one folder after another, usually when looking for a folder or file. In your browser, moving from one Web page to another.

Navigation button
One of the buttons found on a form or navigation bar that helps users display specific records.

Navigation frame
A graphical panel used for navigating from slide to slide in a PowerPoint presentation on the Web.

Navigation structure
A hierarchical map of how Web pages are connected within a Web site and what routes the user can take to get from one page to another.

NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)
The interface for network drivers, a Windows specification for how communication protocol programs such as TCP/IP and network device drivers should communicate with each other.

Nesting
Embedding one element inside another, often said of formulas that embed a function within a function.

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
Pronounced Net-BOO-Ee, an older networking protocol used in early versions of Microsoft networking products.

NetBIOS Extended User Interface
Provides data transport services for communication between computers.

Netiquette
Network etiquette, polite and proper conduct on the Internet.

NetMeeting
A program that enables Internet teleconferencing, supporting communications sessions between two or more Internet users.

Network
Two or more computers connected to one. The Internet is the world’s largest network.

Network administrator
The person in charge of managing a local area network, including accounts, passwords, e-mail and so on.

Network connection
A feature of windows that enables you to create and manage connections to the Internet, a network, and other computers via a dial-up phone line, DSL line, cable, infrared, or other device. Network connections are used mainly for LANs and Internet accounts.

Network disk or network drive
A shared disk drive or folder on a LAN, connected to a computer that your computer can access over a network.

Network printer
Printer that is attached to a computer on a LAN and can be used by other computers on the network.

Network server
A central computer that stores files and programs and manages system functions for a network.

Newbie
Someone just learning to us a PC, the Internet, or some program.

News Server
A computer in your organization or at your ISP that is set up specifically to host newsgroups.

Newsgroup
A collection of messages related to a particular topic posted to a news server, akin to an electronic bulletin board.

Newsreader or newsreading program
Program for reading and posting to newsgroups. Windows comes with Outlook Express, which is both a mail client and a newsreader.

NIC (Network Interface Card)
A circuit board or other assembly that connects a computer to a network. Each computer must have a network interface card to be part of a network.

NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
A protocol used to post, distribute, and retrieve messages on the Internet or corporate intranets, such as Usenet newsgroups.

Node
In a network, a node is a connection point, either a redistribution point or an end point for data transmissions. In general, a node has programmed or engineered capability to recognize and process or forward transmissions to other nodes.

Normal Style
The default number format, alignment, and font for text and numbers in Excel, or Word’s default predefined paragraph style.

Notification area
The right end of the taskbar (what used to be called the system tray), with a digital clock and special icons for running programs.

NT
The first “corporate” version of Windows, which eventually evolved into Windows 2000 and then into Windows XP. “NT” may originally have stood for “New Technology,” although Microsoft never confirmed that.

NTFS compressed folder
The Windows NT/2000 file system, used for storing and retrieving larger files on a hard disk and improved security than its predecessor (FAT system) used in DOS and early versions of Windows.

Null
An object that has no value. An empty field.

Null propagation
Especially in a database, the tendency for a blank (as opposed to zero) numeric value to cause any calculations that rely on the calculation to be null (blank) as well.

Number format
A format applied to values to express numeric concepts, such as currency, date, and percentage.

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O

Object
A distinct item that can be manipulated via VBA code, such as a cell, a worksheet, an embedded graphic, a chart, or a pivot table. Anything that has properties and can be referenced and used by another program. An object may be as small as a character or as large as an Excel workbook.

Object library
A reference file containing information on a collection of objects available to programs.

Object Model
A complete summary of the objects associated with a particular program or feature, the hierarchy used by those objects, and the properties and methods supported by each object.

Object variable
A type of variable used for storing references to objects.

Object-oriented programming
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around “objects” rather than “actions” and data rather than logic.

ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)
A database standard that enables a program to connect to and manipulate a data source, allowing a single user to access many different databases.

Office
The Microsoft suite of applications for personal and professional use, with versions such as 5, 97, 2000, 2003, 2007, and 2010.

Office Assistant
An animated character that appears to offer tips, answer questions, and provide access to the program’s Help system.

Office Clipboard
A general storage area used by all Windows programs, mainly for copying and moving things from one place to another. Also see Clipboard.

Offline
Disconnected, or not currently connected, to any network or computer.

OLAP (OnLine Analytical Processing) Cube
A database technology that enables you to quickly retrieve and summarize immense and complex data sources by taking the information in a data warehouse and summarizing each measure by every dimension, level, and member.

OLE Linking and Embedding
A technique that allows multiple Windows programs (example, Access, Excel, and Word) to share objects such as pictures, sounds, or charts, either with (linking) or without (embedding) a connection between the source and the destination.

One-to-many relationship
Describes a natural relationship between two types of information where for every single item on one side of the relationship, there may be many items on the other side, such as any one customer having placed many orders with a particular business.

One-to-one relationship
Describes a relationship between two tables to which each record in the first table can be associated with exactly one record in the second table.

Online
Connected to a network, such as the Internet.

Online help
Helpful information stored on your computer that you can look at by using the Help window, often accessed by the F1 key.

Open
A file menu command that reads the contents of a selected workbook into your computer’s temporary memory, displaying it on the screen.

Operand
In a worksheet formula, a literal value, cell reference, range, range name, or worksheet function. In a custom calculation formula, a literal value, worksheet function, PivotTable field, or PivotTable item.

Operator
A character symbol that performs an arithmetic operation, examples + (addition), – (subtraction), * (multiplication), or / (division).

Option button
A button that forms part of a group of options, whereby only one option button in the group can be selected at any one time.

Option Explicit
An option that can be set at the beginning of a VBA module to force a variable to be declared before you can use it, usually with a Dim statement. If you omit this option from your VBA module, you can declare variables implicitly, simply by using their names, but those variables will be Variant type by default which occupies excessive memory and risks errors not being identifiable in code due to misspellings of a variable’s name.

Optional Argument
A function argument that you are free to use or omit, depending on your needs.

OR search criteria
Two or more search criteria of which only one condition must be met to evaluate to True.

Orientation
The direction – vertical (portrait) or horizontal (landscape) – in which a page is laid out in a printed document.

OS (Operating System)
Program that manages your entire computer system, including its screen, keyboard, disk drives, memory, and central processor. Windows XP is an operating system.

Outbox
The Outlook Information viewer that displays messages created but not sent. Items displayed in this information viewer are stored in the Outbox folder. See also Information viewer.

Outer Field
For pivot tables in the row or column area, the field that is farthest from the data area.

Outgoing mail server
Internet host computer running a server program that accepts e-mail messages for distributing to the Internet.

Outlook
A desktop information manager that includes comprehensive email messaging, scheduling, and information management facilities.

Outlook Address List
An Outlook folder that contains contact information about people and organizations.

Outlook Express
An application, provided with Internet Explorer, that provides e-mail facilities and allows access to newsgroups.

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P

Page Area
The PivotTable drop area in which the page field appears.

Page break
Ends a printed page at a specified point and starts a new page. Cell contents below and to the right of a page break print on a new page.

Page field
The area at the top of the PivotTable report where you can place any field to filter the PivotTable data by that field; for example, placing the month field there would allow you to display data for one or more months.

Pane
A section into which you can divide your worksheet using the split boxes at the top of the vertical and to the left of the horizontal scroll bars, for when you want to work on separate parts of the worksheet at the same time. One pane freezes, or remains in place, while you scroll in another pane until you see the desired information.

Parameter
A placeholder in a function that specifies the type of argument value.

Parameter query
In a database, a query that asks for specific information before doing its job.

Parsing
In Access, the process of analyzing a document and identifying anything that looks like structured data.

Passing a variable
In VBA, the process of making a variable that is available to a calling procedure (a Sub or a Function) accessible to a called procedure. The called procedure might change the value of that variable, and subsequently pass the changed value back to the calling procedure.

Password
A unique set of letters and characters, usually case sensitive, used to allow access to files or processes.

Paste
A command that moves information on the Clipboard to a new location.

Path
The location of a folder described in terms of its drive, folder, and subfolder, example, C:YourFilePathYourFileName.xls.

Pattern
A design you can place in a worksheet cell or cell range, using the Patterns tab in the Format Cells dialog box.

PC Card
A credit-card-sized adapter card that fits into the PCMCIA slot of a portable or desktop PC.

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
An interconnection system between a microprocessor and attached devices in which expansion slots are spaced closely for high speed operation. Using PCI, a computer can support both new PCI cards while continuing to support Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) expansion cards, an older standard.

PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
A standard defining how PC cards must be designed to work in the PCMCIA slot of a portable or desktop PC.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
A file format that captures all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that you can view, navigate, print, or forward to someone else using the Acrobat Reader. PDF files are especially useful for documents such as magazine articles, product brochures, or flyers in which you want to preserve the original graphic appearance online.

Peer-to-Peer Network
A way to connect several PCs into a local area network where any PC can act as either client or server.

Peripheral
Hardware device that is attached to your computer, such as a printer or modem.

Permission
Security setting that controls what a user or group of LAN users can do with a file, folder, printer, shared folder, or registry key.

Personal Address Book
An address book that contains an Outlook user’s personal list of people’s names and information about those people. A Personal Address Book can be used to create distribution lists and store email addresses in a file with a .pab extension.

Personal certificate
Cryptographic information that identifies you when viewing Web sites, or sending e-mail, stored in files with the extension .pfx.

Personal Folders file
A data file in which Microsoft Outlook saves messages, appointments, tasks, and journal entries on your computer.

Personal Macro Workbook
A Microsoft Excel file designed to contain macros which are available to all workbooks on that computer.

Phantom Field Item
A PivotTable field item that no longer exists in the source data.

Pie chart
A circular chart in which each piece (wedge) shows a data segment and its relationship to the whole.

Ping
Test message sent to find out whether another system will respond, or the name of a program that sends pings on the Internet.

Pivot
Move a field from one drop area of a PivotTable to another.

Pivot Cache
Source data that Excel keeps in memory to improve PivotTable performance.

PivotChart report
An excel feature that lets you summarize worksheet data in the form of a chart in which you can rearrange, or “pivot”, parts of the chart structure to explore new data relationships.

PivotTable (report)
An excel feature that allows you to summarize worksheet data in the form of a table in which you can rearrange, or “pivot,” parts of the table structure to explore new data relationships; also called a PivotTable.

Pixel
Short for picture element. One pixel is a measurement representing the smallest amount of information displayed graphically on the screen as a single dot.

Pixelated image
Graphics image in which the rectangular dots are visible.

Plain Text
A format for Outlook e-mail messages that does not support any text formatting but is supported by all e-mail programs.

Plot area
The area inside the chart axes, where a graphic representation of data appears.

PNG
The file extension on a Portable Network Graphics filename.

Point
A unit of measure used for fonts and row height. One inch equals 72 points; one point = 1/72 of an inch.

POP or POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)
A client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server.

POP server
Computer that handles incoming or outgoing e-mail as service to its mail clients.

Populate
To fill a table or other object with data.

Pop-up menu
The menu that appears when you right-click an object. Also called a context menu or a shortcut menu.

Port
A slot on the back of your PC into which you plug a cable that connects to some external device. Mice, keyboards, monitors, external modems, external CD-ROM drives, printers, and all other external devices plug into a port on a PC.

Port replicator
A compact-sized docking station for a portable computer that enables easy connection to a full-sized keyboard, mouse, monitor, and other devices.

Portrait orientation
A print setting that positions the worksheet on the page so the page is taller than it is wide.

PowerPoint
A presentation graphics program that lets you create electronic slides to use as part of a presentation on a standalone computer or over the World Wide Web.

PPP
A protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.

PPPoE
A specification for connecting multiple computer users on an Ethernet local area network to a remote site through common customer premises equipment, which is the telephone company’s term for a modem and similar devices. PPPoE can be used to have an office or building-full of users share a common Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable modem, or wireless connection to the Internet. PPPoE combines the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), commonly used in dialup connections, with the Ethernet protocol, which supports multiple users in a local area network.

Precedents
In worksheet auditing, any cells referred to and used in a formula.

Precondition
In programming practice, a condition for an action used to test whether running the action will cause a runtime error.

Preview Pane
The area within Outlook’s Inbox Information viewer that contains previews of received messages.

Primary key
One or more fields that determine the uniqueness of each record in a database.

Primary mouse button
The mouse button used for most activities, usually the button on the left.

Primary partition
Sometimes called a DOS partition, the section of a hard disk that stores the main DOS or Windows file system.

Print Preview
A command you can use to view the worksheet as it will look when printed.

Print server
Computer to which a shared printer is attached.

Procedure
VBA code that performs a specific task or set of tasks.

Procedure scope
Scope that makes a variable available only to the procedure that declares it.

Project explorer
In the Visual Basic Editor, a window that lists all open projects (or workbooks) and the worksheets and modules they contain.

Properties window
In the Visual Basic Editor, the window that displays a list of characteristics, or properties, associated with a module.

Property
A programmable characteristic of an item. Typical properties include size, color, font, and visible, among many others.

Proportional spacing
Typeface design in which letters in the typeface are different widths.

Protect
To prevent locked cells or objects from being changed.

Protocol
An agreed-upon set of rules by which two computers can exchange information over a network. A protocol can contain other protocols.

Proxy server
Gateway program that provides caching, logging, and other service when translating between a LAN and the Internet.

PS/2 port
Standard keyboard or mouse connector.

PST (Personal Folders File)
The set of folders in which Outlook stores items. Outlook creates a separate folder for each type of item. Users can add their own hierarchies of folders and subfolders and subsequently move items from one to another.

Public Folder
A folder maintained on a server, such as Exchange Server, that can be accessed by users who have access to the server.

Public profile
Information about yourself that you are willing to expose to the public on the Internet.

Publish
Copying your Web site files to a Web server to display the site to the intended audience.

Pull-down menu
Box onscreen with a downward-pointing triangle button at its right end, usually appearing in a dialog box or menu or Ribbon element.

PWS (Personal Web Server)
Microsoft’s version of a Web server program for individual PC users who want to share Web pages and other files from their hard drive. PWS is a scaled-down version of Microsoft’s more robust Web server, Internet Information Server.

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Q

QBE (Query by example)
The query technique used by Access and many other modern database management systems with QBE, where you create an example of the fields to show, calculations to perform, and sort order to use.

Query
A series of statements written in Structured Query Language to specify the tables and fields you want to work with that add, modify, remove, or return data from a database.

Query Page-By-Page
In PivotTables, queries to the server for new data each time you change the page field item; used with a server page field.

Queue
List of tasks waiting to be done, often said of a print queue whereby a list of print jobs is waiting to be printed.

Quick Launch Toolbar
A set of icons, usually just to the right of the Start button, they provide quick access to frequently used programs. Can be hidden, displayed, moved and sized.

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R

RA
File extension (.ra) used for RealAudio, a steaming audio file format.

Radio button
Another term for option button, a button that forms part of a group of options, whereby only one option button in the group can be selected at any one time.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A way of storing the same data in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disks, meaning input/output operations can overlap in a balanced way, improving performance.

RAM (Random Access Memory)
The memory within a computer in which currently executing programs and information being processed is stored.

Range
A group of cells on a worksheet, such as A1:D4. Technically, a single cell is itself a range, but in normal usage the term Range means more than one contiguous cell.

Range name
A name you can assign to a cell range, such as Expenses or Revenue; you can then use the range names instead of cell references in formulas.

Reading Layout view
In Word, a view that shows a document as it will appear on a handheld reading device.

Read-only
The designation of a file that can be opened and viewed but not modified.

Reboot
To restart the computer without shutting down. Click the Start button and choose Turn Off Computer Ø Restart.

Recall
The capability to retrieve a message that has been sent. Under some circumstances, Outlook can recall messages that recipients have not yet read.

Record
An individual set of field data in a database table or list that comprises a single row in the table.

Recycle Bin
Special folder in which Windows stores files and folders you have recently deleted.

Redimension (Redim)
To resize a dynamic array that has already been formally declared.

Reference operator
A character used to combine cell references in calculations, most commonly the colon ( : ), which connects the first and last cells of the range such as A1:D5.

Referential integrity
The system of rules used by databases to ensure that relationships between tables are valid and that data cannot be changed in one table without also being changed in all related tables.

Refresh
Redisplay a window using updated information; rebuild a PivotTable report using the most current version of the source data; or generally to update data that has been imported from an external source, such as a database, when the source data changes.

Regional settings
Windows settings that control how numbers, dates, times, and currency amounts appear and what languages are installed.

Registered file type
A type of document file associated with a specific program, based on its file name extension. For example, all DOC files are registered to (associated with) the Microsoft Word for Windows program.

Registration file
File with the extension .reg, created by exporting part or all of the Registry.

Registry
A single place for keeping such information as what hardware is attached, what system options have been selected, how computer memory is set up, and what application programs are to be present when the operating system is started.

Regression analysis
In statistics, a method of analyzing data trends that attempts to project future data based on past trends.

Relational database
A collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.

Relative cell reference
In an Excel formula, a cell reference that changes when the formula is copied to a new location because the row and column components are not preceded by a dollar sign $.

Remote access server
A computer to which you connect remotely, by dialing in from another computer or by connecting over the Internet, which allows the remote computer to use its resources.

Replace
A command used to find one set of criteria and replace it with new information.

Report
A formatted display of Access data that you can print or preview on the screen.

Report manager
Used to combine and save multiple custom views into a single report to facilitate printing complex worksheets.

Required Argument
A function argument that must appear between the function’s parentheses in the specified position.

Resolution
The number of pixels (individual points of color) contained on a display monitor, expressed in terms of the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. The sharpness of the image on a display depends on the resolution and the size of the monitor. The same pixel resolution will be sharper on a smaller monitor and gradually lose sharpness on larger monitors because the same number of pixels are being spread out over a larger number of inches.

Resolve
The process by which Outlook checks the message recipient names entered into a Message form by comparing them with names in address books and automatically uses the appropriate e-mail address.

Restore point
“Snapshot” of your Windows and program files, stored by the System Restore program.

Restored window
Window that appears within window borders – not maximized or minimized.

Return
Of a formula, the displayed value resulting from calculation. Of a property’s value, to get the current value of a property.

Return receipt request
Tag attached to an e-mail message that requests a receipt so that the sender knows that the recipient has opened the message.

RGB
Numerical way of describing a color by its Red, Green, and Blue components which can be combined in various proportions to obtain any color in the visible spectrum. Levels of R, G, and B can each range from 0 to 100 percent of full intensity. Each level is represented by the range of decimal numbers from 0 to 255 (256 levels for each color), equivalent to the range of binary numbers from 00000000 to 11111111, or hexadecimal 00 to FF. The total number of available colors is 256 x 256 x 256, or 16,777,216 possible colors.

Rich text
Text that contains special formatting like boldface and italics.

Rich Text Format
A method of formatting text so that documents can be transferred between, and read by, various applications running on different platforms. See RTF.

Right-click
Clicking with the right mouse button (unless you have configured your mouse to swap the functions of the buttons).

RJ-11 jack
The most common telephone jack is the RJ-11 jack, which can have six conductors but usually is implemented with four. The RJ-11 jack is likely to be the jack that your household or office phones are plugged into from the ordinary “untwisted” wire (sometimes called “gray satin” or “flat wire”) people are most familiar with.

RJ-45 connector
Connector used to connect network interface cards to Category-5 cables in a star topology LAN. The RJ-45 is a single-line jack for digital transmission over ordinary phone wire, either untwisted or twisted. The interface has eight pins or positions.

Root, root folder, or root directory
In a computer file system that is organized as a hierarchy or tree, the root directory is the directory that includes all other directories. Example, for the path C:YourFilePath the root directory is C:.

Router
A device or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to. Routers are common in a LAN environment, where several computers tie to the router which itself ties to the Internet service.

Row
The visual presentation of a horizontal record in a spreadsheet, datasheet, query, or filter window.

Row Area
The PivotTable drop area in which the row field appears.

Row Field
A source data field added to a PivotTable’s row area; the field’s items form the report’s rows.

Row headings
The boxed numbers to the left of each row that uniquely identify each one, also called Row Selector Buttons.

Row height
The vertical dimension of a cell.

Row labels
Text or numbers you enter to the left or row data to identify the data in each row, such as “Expenses” or “Third Quarter”.

Row number
Identifies a row in a worksheet. Rows are numbered 1 through 65,536 in versions of or before 2003, and 1,048,576 in version 2007 and after.

Row selector button
The gray box containing the number to the left of the row. Also called Row Headings.

RTF (Rich Text Format)
A method of formatting text so that documents can be transferred between, and read by, various applications running on different platforms. See Rich Text Format.

Run
To have Excel perform the steps of a macro, sometimes called Runtime.

Run mode
When code is running.

Running Total
A type of summary calculation that returns the cumulative sum of the values that appear in a given set of data.

Runtime
Another term for Run mode.

RV
File extension (.rv) for RealVideo, a streaming video file.

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S

S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A secure method of sending e-mail that uses the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman encryption system, popularly used by many email programs to send e-mail securely.

S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface)
A standard audio transfer file format. It is usually found on digital audio equipment such as a DAT (Digital Audio Tape) machine or audio processing device. It allows the transfer of audio from one file to another without the conversion to and from an analog format, which could degrade the signal quality.

Safe mode
A means of starting the computer with the minimum settings and drivers to help a user solve problems that are preventing normal startup. The only startup programs loaded are the operating system and drivers for the mouse, keyboard, and display modes display. It is often possible to get a system to start in safe mode when it won’t start normally. To start in safe mode, press the F8 key while the system is booting and select “safe mode” (or the safe mode option you want) from the menu that appears.

Save
A command used to permanently store your workbook and any changes you make to a file on a disk. The first time you save a workbook you must give it a filename.

Save As
The command to save a new or existing document under a different name, or in a different format, and/or in a different location.

Scalable
The ability of a computer application or product (hardware or software) to continue to function well when it is changed in size or volume, especially not only to function well in the rescaled situation, but to actually take full advantage of it, such as using a program in a new version that was created in a previous version.

Scanner
Device that digitizes pictures (or anything on paper) for use by your computer.

Scenario
An Excel procedure for saving multiple sets of input values so you can apply them to your worksheet and view their effect on formula results.

Scenario Summary
An Excel table that compiles data from various scenarios so that you can view the scenario results next to each other for easy comparison.

Scope
The area in VBA within which a variable or procedure can operate.

Screen saver
Program that displays an image, frequently one that moves, on your desktop when you are not using the computer. This was necessary for older monitors whose static image would burn into the screen, but modern monitors do not bring that concern, so screen savers are now just cosmetic enhancements.

Screen shot
Picture of what is on the screen.

ScreenTip
A short description that appears beneath a toolbar, toolbox button, chart, or embedded control if you rest the mouse pointer on the button for a couple of seconds without clicking.

Scrollbars
Vertical or horizontal bar running along the right side or bottom of a window allowing you to scroll the information displayed in the window.

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
Pronounced “scuzzy”, a set of ANSI standard electronic interfaces that enables multiple disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and other devices to be connected to one another and then connected to a single port on the PC.

Search criterion
The specification for data that you want to find in an Excel list, such as “California” or “is greater than 1000.”

Search Engine
A coordinated set of programs that includes a spider (also called a “crawler” or a “bot”) that goes to every page or representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site’s other pages; a program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a “catalog”) from the pages that have been read; and a program that receives your search request; then compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you. Popular examples are Google and Yahoo.

Sector
Physical block of storage on a disk.

Secure e-mail
E-mail that has been encoded so that only the intended recipient can read it.

Secure server
Web server that supports SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) to encrypt data sent between the server and your computer. Pages loaded from a secure server have URLs beginning with https://.

Security level
A setting that determines whether presentations that contain macros can be opened on your computer, and if so, if you should be prompted for confirmation of approval.

Select
To highlight a single cell or range of cells, or click an item that in some way activates it.

Select query
A query that retrieves data matching specified criteria from one or more tables and displays the results in a datasheet.

Selected cell
Also called the Active cell or Current cell, it is the cell with the dark selection border to indicate that it would be the cell acted upon, such as with the entry of a formula, text, or value.

Selection
An object or objects, including for example a range of cells, already selected and, hence, framed or highlighted in some manner.

Selection handles
Small boxes appearing along the corners and sides of charts and graphic images that are used for moving and resizing.

Self-Certify
Create a trust certificate that applies only to your own VBA projects and only to those projects on your own computer.

Self-join
A table that’s joined to itself in a query. For example, if a part consists of other parts, you could identify the “parts of a part” using a self-join on a Parts table.

Sensitivity
A security setting of an e-mail message that indicates whether a message should be treated as normal, personal, private, or confidential.

Sent Items
A message that has been sent to a mail server. Outlook automatically moves items that have been sent from the Outbox subfolder to the Sent Items folder.

Serial port
A connector on your computer that is used for serial communication, such as a mouse, external modems, or printers.

Series Area
The PivotChart drop area in which the series field appears.

Series Field
A source data field added to the PivotChart’s series area; the field’s items form the chart’s data series.

Server
A computer, or the software running on that computer, that provides services to client computers.

Server-based Web site
A web site that is located on a computer that is configured as a Web server. See also disk-based Web sites.

Server-side applications
Programs, run on the Web server rather than on a Web visitor’s own computer, that enable you to post and modify content on a Web site.

Service Provider
An organization that provides access to a computer-related service. An Internet service provider (ISP) provides access to the Internet.

Set statement
A VBA statement that causes an object, such as a range of cells on a worksheet, to be assigned to a VBA variable. For example: Set CurrentRange=ActiveSheet.Range(Cells(1,1),Cells(5,5).

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
A comprehensive system for coding the structure of text documents and other forms of data so that they can be used in a variety of environments. SGML is not in itself a document language, but a description of how to specify one.

Shape
Any one of may types of objects that are placed on the worksheet, such as drawn free-form, or controls from the Forms toolbar or activex control toolbox.

Shared attachments
Attachments saved on a SharePoint Document Workspace web site, where a group can collaborate to work on files and discuss a project. Also called live attachments.

Shared drive
Drive that is shared with and accessible to other users on a LAN.

Shared folder
Folder that has been configured to be usable by other computers on a LAN.

Shared printer
Printer that is shared with other users on a LAN. Also called a network printer.

Shared workbook
An Excel workbook that is enabled for simultaneous access for two or more users to open and modify.

SharePoint
A portal-based platform for creating, managing and sharing documents and Web services on an intranet. SharePoint can be used to host web sites that access shared workspaces, information stores and documents, as well as host defined applications such as wikis and blogs. All users can manipulate proprietary controls called “web parts” or interact with pieces of content such as lists and document libraries.

SharePoint team Web sites
A collaboration site for team use that consists of a Home page, a Document Libraries page, a Discussion Boards page, a Lists page, a Create Page, and a Site Settings page.

Shareware
Software given to you free for a trial period so that you can try it before you buy.

Sheet
A term often used for a worksheet, though Excel provides for Chart sheets, Dialog sheets, and Macro sheets.

Sheet tab
The small tab at the bottom of each worksheet that displays that worksheet’s name. Also called worksheet tab.

Shell account
Shell is a Unix term for the interactive user interface with an operating system. The shell is the layer of programming that understands and executes the commands a user enters. In some systems, the shell is called a command interpreter. Also see Unix Shell Account.

Shortcut
In general, a shortcut is a path that is shorter than the usual or formal path to something or a method of operation that saves time over the regular operation. A shortcut is also a computer desktop icon that enables a user to easily see and select a particular program or data object. A keyboard shortcut refers to some key(s) you can press as an alternative to going through menus or clicking a desktop icon.

Shortcut icon
Icon that represents a shortcut, usually on the desktop or in Windows Explorer. Shortcut icons always include a little white curving arrow in the lower-left corner.

Shortcut key
Combination of the CTRL key, the ALT key, and one other key; pressing these keys at the same time runs a specified shortcut.

Shortcut menu
A menu activated by placing the pointer over an object or in text, and then clicking the right mouse button.

Signature
Text or pictures that are automatically added to the end of an outgoing e-mail message, most often used to sign messages.

Signed driver
A device driver that’s been “digitally signed” by Microsoft or other manufacturer, to verify its compatibleness with Windows XP.

Signed file
Audio or video file for which you have a digital license, usually a file you copied from an audio CD which you presumably own.

Signed mail
E-mail that has been encoded using your private key to prove that you sent it.

Single
A variable type that occupies 32 bits of memory, less precise than a Double Precision variable for very large or very small numbers, though Single occupies more memory than Double. Singles are utilized with fractional numbers or array elements. Singles range for negative numbers between -3.402823E38 to -1.401298E-45, and for positive numbers between 1.401298E-45 to 3.402823E38.

Site map
A graphical depiction of the locations of Web pages in a Web site.

Sizing handle
Small squares or circles (depending on the object) that surround a selected object, enabling you to drag them to resize the object.

Slide Show view
In PowerPoint, a view where you can preview slides as an electronic presentation.

Slide Sorter view
In PowerPoint, a view where you can see all slides in a presentation in miniature.

Slide transition
In PowerPoint, the visual effect when moving from slide to slide in presentations.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol used for communication between two machines that are previously configured for communication with each other. For example, your Internet service provider may provide you with a SLIP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. Point-to-Point (PPP) is preferred over SLIP when connecting to the Internet.

Smart Tag
An icon that automatically appears adjacent to cells after certain Excel actions, such as pasting, that when clicked displays an action menu that presents options you can take relating to the action, such as retaining source formatting.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail. However, since it is limited in its ability to queue messages at the receiving end, it is usually used with one of two other protocols, POP3 or IMAP, that let the user save messages in a server mailbox and download them periodically from the server. In other words, users typically use a program that uses SMTP for sending e-mail and either POP3 or IMAP for receiving e-mail.

Snail mail
A slang name for conventional mail delivered by a traditional postal service.

Software
A general term for the various kinds of programs and intangible instructions, usually stored on a computer disk, that tell the computer how to behave.

Solve Order
The order in which Excel solves the calculated items in a PivotTable.

Solver
An Excel add-in designed to handle complex problem-solving with mathematical models and constraints, as a what-if analysis to find an optimal value for a formula. Solver works with a group of cells that are related, either directly or indirectly, to the formula in the target cell. Solver adjusts the values in the changing cells you specify, called the adjustable cells, to produce the result you specify from the target cell formula.

Sort
To put data into some meaningful order, such as alphabetical (A-Z) or numeric (smallest to largest).

Sort field
The column you want Excel to use in sorting (sometimes called a sort key).

Sort key
The column you want Excel to use in sorting (sometimes called a sort field).

Source list
The list on which a PivotTable or chart is based.

Spam
Unsolicited and unwanted junk e-mail.

Special characters
Characters that do not appear on the standard US 101-key keyboard, such as fractions and accented letters.

Spell check
Checks the spelling of words in the current worksheet or selected range, and enables you to change or ignore any word not found in its dictionary.

SPID (Service Provide Identifier)
For an ISDN line, the phone number plus a few extra digits that identify the type and capabilities of the ISDN switch.

Splash screen
An introductory screen containing useful, entertaining, or simply advertising information, often used to divert the user’s attention while data is loading or for the program to call attention to itself.

Split pane
Whereby two to four areas of a worksheet can be viewed with its rows or columns locked in one area so you can scroll in each of those areas while rows or columns in the non-scrolled areas remain visible.

Spooling
Multitasking system that allows a program to store information so it can be processed at a more convenient time, such as print jobs to a printer while other tasks are performed.

Spreadsheet
Excel’s term for an electronic work area comprised of rows and columns; also known as a worksheet.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
A database sublanguage used in querying, updating, and managing relational databases – the de facto standard for database products.

SQL database
A database that supports SQL, and that can be accessed simultaneously by several users on a LAN.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
The method that Web browsers use to provide secure encrypted communication, a commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. SSL has recently been succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is based on SSL. SSL uses a program layer located between the Internet’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP) layers.

Stacked column chart
A chart type that displays multiple data series as stacked components of a single column instead of as side-by-side columns, useful if the multiple data series total to a meaningful number.

Standard module
In VBA, a module where macros and User Defined Functions are housed.

Standby
A means of reducing the power consumption of a computer to the point where only enough electricity is consumed to allow the system to be fully operation when it is asked to do so.

Start menu
The menu that appears when you click the Start button in the lower-left corner of the Windows desktop.

Startup menu
Menu that appears if you press F8 while Windows is loading.

Startup mode
Mode in which you can run Windows if you are having trouble starting Windows in the normal manner.

Statement
In a macro, a line of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code.

Static IP addressing
Manually assigned IP that doesn’t often change.

Static variable
A variable whose values you want to preserve between calls to the procedure in which it is declared.

Stationery
In Outlook, a preset or automatic format for e-mail messages that specifies fonts, bullets, background color, horizontal lines, images, and other design elements.

Status bar
The bar along the bottom of the screen that displays the current status of things and information about the program.

Step (into)
In VBA, to execute a procedure one command at a time (step into) or in groups of commands (step over, step out).

Step out
In VBA, to execute without stepping the remaining commands in a procedure you’ve started to step through. When you step out of a procedure, VBA then re-enters Break mode for any subsequent procedure.

Step over
In VBA, to run without stepping a procedure called from a procedure you’re stepping through in Break mode. After running the called procedure, VBA re-enters Break mode for the rest of the calling procedure.

Streaming audio video format
Audio (sound) and video data stored in a format that allows the beginning of the file to be played, even before later parts of the file are read, so the data is sent and experienced as a continuous stream, as with TV.

String
Commonly, a series of one or more text characters, usually characterized by alpha or alphanumeric characters, though just numbers, or even no characters at all (“null string”) can be regarded as a string. In VBA, a variable type for storing text or a group of characters.

Style
A named collection of cell or number formats that you can apply to other cells for conveniently formatting worksheets, whereby if you change a style definition, all cells with that style applied are also changed.

Sub procedure
A series of VBA statements enclosed by Sub and End Sub statements, typically that perform an action but do not return a value, also called subroutine.

Subfolder
A folder contained within another folder. The containing folder is called the parent folder.

Subject
In Outlook or for email messages, a brief description as the “headline” of the message being sent.

Submenu
Menu displayed by a command from another menu.

Subroutine
A series of VBA statements enclosed by Sub and End Sub statements, typically that perform an action but do not return a value, also called sub procedure.

Subscript
In VBA, the number declaring the number of items in an array or the number that identifies a particular item in the array, sometimes just referred to as array subscript.

Subset
In an Excel list, a group of records that has been filtered to display only those records produced by the filter.

SUM
Probably the most commonly used function in Excel; adds up a range of cells or numbers.

Summary function
In a PivotTable, a function that determines the type of calculation applied to the PivotTable data, such as SUM or COUNT.

SVGA (Super Virtual Graphics Array)
Type of display adapter with lower resolution (800 x 600) than XGA or SXGA.

Swap
To move data between memory (RAM) and disk. A swap file is a space on a hard disk used as the virtual memory extension of a computer’s real memory (RAM), allowing your computer’s operating system to have access to more memory than just your physical RAM. The least recently used files in RAM can be “swapped out” to your hard disk until they are needed later so that new files can be “swapped in” to RAM.

Switchboard
A form used to navigate among the objects of a database application so that users don’t have to be familiar with the actual database.

SXGA
Type of display with higher resolution than an XGA monitor, 1280 x 1024.

Syntax
In VBA, the rules of formatting, grammar, structure, and order of elements that must be followed so that the programming code runs correctly.

System clock
Digital clock that can appear on the notification (usually right-most) area of the taskbar.

System menu
A menu you can open by clicking the icon in the upper-left corner of a window or by pressing Alt+Spacebar, enabling you to move and size a window using the keyboard rather than the mouse.

System resources
Memory used by Windows applications.

System tray or systray
A section of the taskbar, usually the right-most area, hat is used to display the clock and the icons of certain programs so that a user is continually reminded that they are there and can easily click one of them.

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T1, T3
Special lines that provide high-speed, full-time access to the Internet, T1 at 1.544 Mbps and T3 at 44.736 Mbps.

Tab
Page of settings on a dialog box selected by a tab shaped like a manila folder along the top of the dialog box.

Tab or page tab or sheet tab
The small tab at the bottom of each worksheet that displays that worksheet’s name.

Tab order
The order in which VBA selects controls in a user form or frame when you move through them by pressing the Tab key to move forward, or the Shift+Tab key combination to move backwards.

Table
A database or spreadsheet object that holds the data you want to manage in a two-dimensional list of rows and columns, usually of a particular theme such as Customers or Products.

Tablet PC
A wireless personal computer that allows a user to take notes using natural handwriting with a stylus or digital pen on a touch screen.

Tag
Usually associated with programming languages such as XML and HTML, a command inserted in a document that specifies how the document, or a portion of the document, should be formatted.

TAP (Telelocator Alpha-Paging Protocol)
A protocol used by alphanumeric pagers. Alphanumeric pagers decode information received in the TAP protocol and display that information on their screens. Don’t confuse the TAP protocol with the ATAPI and TAPI protocols.

TAPI (Telephony Applications Programming Interface)
A protocol that controls how Windows applications interact with the telephone system, as a program interface that lets you and your computer “talk” over telephones or video phones to people or phone-connected resources elsewhere in the world. Don’t confuse the TAPI protocol with the ATAPI and TAP protocols.

Task
A series of instructions that your computer is executing, ranging from something as simple as opening a document to actions such as executing complex macros.

Task pane
A window that opens on the right side of the Excel screen at selected times, enabling you to quickly access commands related to a specific task without having to use menus, toolbars, or the ribbon.

Taskbar
A visual device on the desktop, usually the horizontal bar running along the bottom of the screen, that typically shows the user which applications (tasks) are currently active and running. Some taskbars, such as those in Windows operating systems, also include icons for commonly-used utilities such as the system clock and antivirus software.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
A set of rules (protocol) used along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, Transmission Control Protocol, manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message. The lower layer, Internet Protocol, handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others, they’ll be reassembled at the destination.

Telnet
A user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers, through which an administrator or another user can access someone else’s computer remotely.

Template
A workbook file with an .xlt file extension that you use as a basis for creating a new workbook using the same design; can contain text, formatting, formulas, macros, charts, or data.

Text box
A control on a userform or worksheet where data and text can be directly entered or edited by the user.

Text file
A file with the extension .txt that contains unformatted data, such as letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation, with no programming code.

Thread
Related messages in a newsgroup.

Thumbnail
A small version of a graphic or slide that is hyperlinked to the full-size version. In Word, a small image that represents a page in a document and that you can click to navigate to that page.

Tick marks
Small lines on chart axes that denote measurement intervals.

TIF or TIFF file
A common format for exchanging bitmap images between application programs, including those used for scanner images, having the extension .tiff or .tif.

Tiling
Repeating a graphic to fill up a space, such as on the desktop.

Title bar
The horizontal bar that runs across the top of a window, indicating the program name, workbook name, and the name of the current worksheet, usually with Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons on the right. Userforms and dialogs, and message boxes also have title bars, usually without the Minimize and Maximize buttons.

Title slide
In PowerPoint, the first slide in a presentation.

Toggle
A control that turns a feature on and off, or generally, the option, or the act of pursuing the option, of turning a setting on or off.

Token Ring
Type of local area network hardware, largely superseded by Ethernet, whereby all computers in a LAN are connected in a ring or star topology, and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send messages at the same time.

Toolbar
A graphical bar containing groupings of commands represented by buttons, icons, controls, or frequently used menu commands.

Toolbox
A toolbar in the VBE that displays lets you place controls on your userform design. Sometimes, “Toolbox” is a spoken abbreviated name for the Control Toolbox upon which embeddable activex controls are accessed.

ToolTip
Small informational box that appears when you leave the mouse pointer on something for a few seconds, usually used for buttons on toolbars, items on the menu bar or ribbon, or on userform controls.

Topology
Pattern of cabling that is used to connect computers together into a LAN. There are four principal topologies used in LANs: “Bus topology”: All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone; “Ring topology”: All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it; “Star topology”: All devices are connected to a central hub; “Tree topology: Combination of linear bus and star topologies consisting of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.

Trace Dependents
An auditing tool that shows what other cells use the results of the current cell.

Tracer arrows
In worksheet auditing, blue arrows that connect a selected cell to its dependents or precedents.

Track Changes
To identify and keep a record of who makes which changes to a workbook.

Trap
To catch an error with code and avoid a run time error message, so you can deal with the error by using an error handler, or by using an error bypass method of coding that conditionally exits that portion of code, or the macro itself, if the error is encountered.

Trendline
A special Excel line chart that projects future values based on past trends.

Trojan horse
A destructive program that appears innocent. Unlike a virus, a Trojan horse does not replicate itself across computers in a network. It is malicious and harmful code contained inside apparently harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage.

TrueType
Method of storing typefaces as a set of formulas for drawing the characters at almost any size. Created at Apple Computer, TrueType was designed to fill the need for an optimized, scalable font format that uses hinting , a technique that preserves a font’s design, even at a small scale or on a display with low resolution.

Truncate
To shorten the display of a cell based on the width of a cell, though the underlying value or text item in the cell is still present, even though unreadable, assuming its character length does not exceeding the cell’s capacity.

TTL
Time To Live, how many times a packet can be passed from one computer to another while in transit on the Internet. TTL is a value in an Internet Protocol (IP) packet that tells a network router whether or not the packet has been in the network too long and should be discarded. For a number of reasons, packets may not get delivered to their destination in a reasonable length of time. For example, a combination of incorrect routing tables could cause a packet to loop endlessly. A solution is to discard the packet after a certain time and send a message to the originator, who can decide whether to resend the packet. The initial TTL value is set, usually by a system default, in an 8-binary digit field of the packet header.

Tunneling
Also known as “port forwarding,” the transmission of data intended for use only within a private network through a public network in such a way that the routing nodes in the public network are unaware that the transmission is part of a private network, as commonly done when connecting to a private network over the Internet using Virtual Private Networking.

Twip
A twip (twentieth of a point) is a unit of measure used in laying out space or defining objects on a page or other area that is to be printed or displayed on a computer screen. A twip is 1/1440th of an inch or 1/567th of a centimeter, meaning there are 1440 twips to an inch or 567 twips to a centimeter. The twip is 1/20th of a point, a traditional measure in printing that is approximately 1/72nd of an inch.

Twisted pair
The ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business computers to the telephone company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two insulated copper wires are twisted around each other.

TXT
A text file, with the file extension .txt.

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U

UCT (Universal Coordinated Time)
The standard time common to every place in the world. Formerly and still widely called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and also World Time, UTC nominally reflects the mean solar time along the Earth’s prime meridian.

UDF (User Defined Function)
A worksheet cell formula you design and create in VBA, with optional arguments you specify, usually to obtain a result that is not possible, or too cumbersome, using native worksheet formulas and functions.

Unbound
Not linked, as when a control is used to calculate values from two or more fields and is therefore not bound to any particular field. Also see bound.

Unbound control
A control on a form or report that isn’t tied to the underlying table.

UNC (Uniform or Universal Naming Convention)
A way to identify a shared file on a LAN network without having to specify or know the storage device it is on. In Windows operating systems, the UNC can be used instead of the local naming system (example C:YourFilePathYourFileName.xls), example servernamesharenameYourFilePathYourFileName.xls.

Unicode
Character codes that allow you to use characters from practically every language on Earth. The Unicode standard contains 34,168 distinct coded characters derived from 24 supported language scripts covering the principal written languages of the world.

Union
The combination of two different worksheet ranges such that they are treated as one.

Universal Plug and Play
Configuration system that allows Windows to detect new hardware and automatically install the necessary drivers.

UNIX
Operating system widely used on Internet host computers.

UNIX shell account
The interactive user interface with an operating system. The shell is the layer of programming that understands and executes the commands a user enters. In some systems, the shell is called a command interpreter. Also see Shell Account.

Unlock
To remove the default locked setting that prevents changes when worksheet protection is active.

Unmatched query
In a database, a form of select query that locates records in one table that do not have related records in another table.

Unshielded twisted pair cable
Type of cable used to connect computers in a star topology LAN. Also called Category-5 cable.

Update query
In a database, an action query that lets you change data in all or selected records in a table.

Upload
Transfer a file from your local computer to another computer, to the Internet, to another network, or to a mainframe.

Uppercase
Capital letters, as opposed to lowercase letters.

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
A device that allows your computer to keep running for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost, also protects from power surges. A UPS contains a battery that “kicks in” when the device senses a loss of power from the primary source, so you have time to save your data.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique address for a location that is accessible on the World Wide Web, example www.atlaspm.com. Sometimes also called a web address.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)
A plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on devices, such as media players, keyboards, telephones, digital cameras, scanners, flash drives, and printers.

USB hub
Device that lets you connect several USB devices to one USB port on your computer.

Usenet
A service on the Internet that enables people to communicate via newsgroups. Windows comes with Outlook Express, which lets you read and post to Usenet newsgroups.

User
A person authorized to access a workbook, database, or some file but who generally is not involved in establishing its structure.

User Account
Windows settings that are stored for use when you log into the computer, a network, or on a web site that provides for its visitors to register their name and information. Sometimes called a user profile.

User profile
Windows settings that are stored for use when you log into the computer, a network, or on a web site that provides for its visitors to register their name and information. Sometimes called a user account.

UserForm
A custom dialog box created in the VBE, with controls and associated VBA code, usually meant for the end user to be advised of some information or to efficiently enter data, generate reports, or perform some action.

Utility
Small program that performs a housekeeping or other useful task. Windows comes with many utilities.

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V

Validation rule
In a spreadsheet, a criterion you specify to ensure a certain data type or reasonable entry (such as a number between 1 and 100) is allowed to be accepted. In a database, a field property that tests entries to ensure that only the correct types of information become part of a table.

Value
The returned contents of a formula, field, or control, or the constant piece of data that was entered into a cell, formally referring to numeric data but in common discussion meaning any data occupying a cell.

Value axis
A vertical axis on a chart that usually appears at the left edge, usually called the Y axis. Some chart types support the creation of a second Y-axis at the right edge of the chart.

Variable
In VBA, a placeholder for numbers, characters, or other data that is stored in memory during the execution of programming code, for the purpose of carrying out instructions or computations. Variable declarations are made with the Dim statement, example for a String type variable, Dim xyz as String.

Variable type
The type of a variable defines what sorts of values it may take on. Types include Integer, Long, Single, Double, String, Boolean, and many others. If a variable is declared as, for example, Integer, it cannot take on a string value.

Variant
A type of variable that can store any type of data. Variant is the default type of variable, and is the most memory-expensive type.

VB (Visual Basic)
A programming environment from Microsoft in which a programmer uses a graphical user interface (GUI) to choose and modify preselected sections of code written in the BASIC programming language to create Windows applications.

VBA (Visual Basic for Applications)
A programming language that is built into Microsoft Office applications, providing for recorded macros or procedures that can be written directly.

VBE (Visual Basic Editor)
In Microsoft Office applications, the programming environment in which VBA and API code is created and edited.

VBS (Visual Basic Scripting)
A subset of Visual Basic for Applications, originally developed for working with hypertext documents, that now is also used for developing extended capabilities in Outlook forms.

VBScript
Language resembling Microsoft’s Visual Basic that can be used to add scripts to Web pages or other applications, Microsoft’s answer to Netscape’s popular JavaScript.

vCalendar
A format by which meeting request information can be sent and received by way of the Internet. Outlook supports vCalendar.

vCard
An electronic business (or personal) card and also the name of an industry specification for the kind of communication exchange that is done on business or personal cards, sent over the Internet. Outlook supports vCard.

Version
A release of a product (especially especially to operating systems, software, and Web services) that is usually among a past or future series of multiple releases of that product, all of which have the same general function but are improved, upgraded or customized with each new release.

VESA (Video Electronic Standards Association)
A standard interface between your computer and its expansion slot that provides faster data flow between the devices controlled by the expansion cards and your computer’s microprocessor.

VGA (Virtual Graphics Array)
The type of display card and monitor that gives you rich color and graphics, resolution 640 x 480.

View
A way of looking at an object or a selected group of records such as derived from a query. Also, a set of display or print settings that you can name and save for access at another time.

Virtual driver
A 32-bit device program that can be loaded into upper memory via the Registry in certain Microsoft operating systems to handle software interrupts from the operating system (rather than hardware interrupts) for each of the computer’s main hardware devices, including the hard disk drive controller, keyboard, and serial and parallel ports.

Virtual machine
An environment, usually a program or operating system, which does not physically exist but is created within another environment. In this context, a virtual machine is called a “guest” while the environment it runs within is called a “host.” Virtual machines are often created to execute an instruction set different than that of the host environment. One host environment can often run multiple virtual machines at once. Because virtual machines are separated from the physical resources they use, the host environment is often able to dynamically assign those resources among them.

Virtual memory
A feature of an operating system that enables a process to use a memory (RAM) address space that is independent of other processes running in the same system, and use a space that is larger than the actual amount of RAM present, temporarily relegating some contents from RAM to a disk, with little or no overhead, so individual programs don’t have to do all of their own memory management.

Virus
A program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a downloaded file, or be present on a diskette or CD, and frequently are destructive to the computers upon which they are unleashed.

VLOOKUP function
An Excel function that searches vertically through columns to locate a specific item, and returns the value occupying the cell on the same row and in a column to the right (which you specify) of that located item.

VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol)
A set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network, offering the advantage of avoiding the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service.

VPN (Virtual Private Networking)
Program that allows an authorized computer on the Internet to tunnel through the firewall and connect to a private network.

VPN client
A computer that uses Point-to-Point Tunneling to connect over the Internet to a VPN server.

VPN server
A computer that supports Point-to-Point tunneling to allow computers to connect from the Internet using VPN.

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W

Wallpaper
On a computer that is provided with a desktop kind of user interface, wallpaper is the background pattern or picture against which desktop menus, icons, and other elements are displayed and moved around. A wallpaper image can be in a JPEG or a GIF file format.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
A geographically dispersed telecommunications network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.

Watch window
A window you can have appear at the bottom of your screen displaying a cell’s address, value, and formula.

Watermark
A picture or text that appears faintly in the background of a printed document.

WAV file
An audio file format created by Microsoft having extension .wav, that has become a standard PC audio file format for everything from system and game sounds to CD-quality audio. The .wav file format has been accepted as a viable interchange medium for other computer platforms, such as Macintosh, allowing content developers to freely move audio files between platforms for processing.

Web
Short for World Wide Web, all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, with a structure of documents, called pages, connected electronically over a large computer network called the Internet.

Web address
The unique address for a location that is accessible on the World Wide Web, example www.atlaspm.com. Sometimes also called a URL.

Web browser
A program such as Microsoft Internet Explorer that is used to locate and display pages on the World Wide Web.

Web Layout view
A view that shows a document as it will appear as a Web page.

Web Page
The document or one of multiple documents that make up a Web site.

Web query
An Excel feature that lets you obtain data from a Web, Internet, or intranet site and place it in an Excel workbook for analysis.

Web server
A computer that is specifically configured to host Web sites, store Web pages and respond to requests from Web browsers.

Web site
Collection of Web pages belonging to a particular person or organization, usually having a designed theme.

Week view
In Outlook, the Calendar view displaying one full week at a time.

WHERE clause
An SQL statement that isolates specific records in a table, created automatically when you design a query.

Whistler
Microsoft’s pre-release code name for Windows XP.

Whiteboard
Feature of Windows Messenger that allows callers to draw a shared picture that all can edit and see.

Widow
Said of the last line of a paragraph printed by itself at the top of a page.

WiFi
Short for “wireless fidelity”, a term for certain types of wireless local area networks (WLAN) that use specifications in the 802.11 family.

Wildcard
A special symbol you use as a placeholder for unknown characters in defining search criteria. The most common types of wildcards are the question mark (?), which stands for any single character, and the asterisk (*) which represents any group of characters.

Window
An area of a display screen that provides access to an operating system or application and contains information relating to that system or application.

WINDOWS key
On your keyboard, the key with the flying Windows logo, usually found to the left of the spacebar between the CTRL and ALT keys.

WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)
A naming service that resolves Windows network computer names to Internet IP addresses without the user or an administrator having to be involved in each configuration change.

Winsock
A programming interface and the supporting program that handles input/output requests for Internet applications in a Windows operating system. as a standard way for Windows programs to work with Internet connection software. Most popular Internet programs are Winsock-compatible, including Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, and Outlook Express.

Wireless LAN
Star topology LAN that communicates by radio transmissions in the 2.4 GHz frequency band so mobile user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection.

With statement and With block
The With statement initiates a With block; the End With statement terminates the With block. Inside the block, you can refer to methods or properties of the object named in the With statement, and yet not have to qualify the method or property by referring again to the object.

Wizard
A helpful program that steps you through the sequential process of creating an object or completing a task.

Word
A word-processing program by Microsoft that lets you enter, edit, and format text, such as letters, reports, and books; Outlook’s default e-mail editor.

Word wrap
The movement of text to the next line when typing goes beyond the right margin.

WordArt
Text objects with special formatting applied to add bend, slope, color, or shadow, which you can place on a worksheet or chart.

WordMail
A name used to refer to the Word program when it is used as the Outlook e-mail editor.

Workbook
An Excel file that contains one or more worksheets.

Workbook level names
Compare with worksheet level names. A workbook-level name belongs to the workbook, and can be used in functions or formulas in any workbook sheet. Costs is an example of a workbook-level name; to be a sheet-level name, it would have to be qualified by the name of a specific sheet, as in Sheet1!Costs.

Workgroup
Two or more computers using Windows whose computers are connected to form a peer-to-peer network. Also, a group of people in an organization who work together and who share documents, often electronically.

Worksheet
Excel’s term for an electronic work area comprised of rows and columns; also known as a spreadsheet.

Worksheet level names
A worksheet level name belongs only to the sheet where it is defined, and contains the name of the sheet as a qualifier of the name, example, Sheet1!Expenses is a sheet-level name.

Worksheet tab
The small tab at the bottom of each worksheet that displays that worksheet’s name. Also called sheet tab.

Workspace
An Excel file with an .xlw file extension that contains the location, window sizes, and display settings of workbooks you specify. Instead of opening each individual file, you open the workspace file, which automatically opens the workbooks in the arrangement and settings you specified.

Workstation
A computer used by a person, rather than one used only as a server for people at other computers, with unusually high processing capabilities, often used for computer-aided design and similar calculation-intensive and graphics-intensive jobs.

Worm
A self-replicating virus that does not alter files but resides in active memory and duplicates itself, and can infect other computers by e-mail or over a LAN or the Internet, frequently with destructive side-effects. Worms use parts of an operating system that are automatic and usually invisible to the user.

Wrapping
The breaking of lines of text to fit the width of the cell or text box.

Write access
A file attribute that specifies a file can be edited and saved under the same name.

WWW (World Wide Web)
All the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, with a structure of documents, called pages, connected electronically over a large computer network called the Internet.

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X

X-Axis
The horizontal axis of a chart that generally appears at the bottom edge, sometimes called the category axis.

X-Axis label
A label describing the x-axis of a chart.

XGA
Type of display with higher resolution than a Super VGA monitor, 1024 x 768.

XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A standard that enables the management and sharing of structured data using simple text files that are “marked up” with tags to describe document structure rather than appearance.

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Y

Y-Axis
A vertical axis on a chart that usually appears at the left edge, sometimes called the value axis. Some chart types support the creation of a second Y-axis at the right edge of the chart.

Y-Axis label
A label describing the y-axis of a chart.

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Z

Zip disk
A removable disk that stores either 100MB or 250MB.

Zip Drive
A disk drive supplied by Iomega Corporation that accepts a removable disk capable of storing 100MB or more of information.

ZIP file
File that contains compressed versions of one or more files to speed transfer over a network, compressed by WinZip, PKZIP, ZipMagic, or a compatible compression program, having the extension .zip.

Zoom
A Windows feature that enables you to focus on a visually larger or smaller part of the worksheet.

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